Declaration on Implementation of the Washington Agreement

  • Country/entity

    Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Yugoslavia (former)
  • Region

    Europe and Eurasia
    Europe and Eurasia
  • Agreement name

    Declaration on Implementation of the Washington Agreement
  • Date

    22 Jul 1995
  • Agreement status

    Multiparty signed/agreed
  • Interim arrangement

    Yes
  • Agreement/conflict level

    Intrastate/intrastate conflict ( Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
  • Stage

    Implementation/renegotiation
  • Conflict nature

    Government/territory
  • Peace process

    Bosnia peace process
  • Parties

    Dr. Franjo TUDJMAN, President of the Republic of Croatia; Alija IZETBEGOVJC, President of the Presidency of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Kresimir ZUBAK, President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Haris SILAJDZIC, Prime Minister of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Third parties

    -
  • Description

    This declaration on the implementation of the Washington agreement includes commitment to continued cooperation between the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croatian Defence Council against Serb and Montenegrin forces, and calls on the Republic of Croatia to provide military assistance.


Groups

  • Children/youth

    No specific mention.

  • Disabled persons

    No specific mention.

  • Elderly/age

    No specific mention.

  • Migrant workers

    No specific mention.

  • Racial/ethnic/national group
    Groups→Racial/ethnic/national group→Rhetorical
    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    Confirming their strong commitment and political will to strengthen the cooperation and alliance of the Croatian and Bosniac nations in these fateful moments for the survival of both nations, faced with the increasing violence in the occupied territories of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the uncertainty of the peace process and the inefficacy of the international community;

    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    ...Having established that the continued aggression and violent attempts to keep control of the occupied territories in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, as well as the inadequate results of the peace process, command the leaders of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to fully examine the situation in the region from the stand- point of safeguarding the national survival of the Croatian and Bosniac people and the territorial integrity of the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina;

    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    ...Convinced that such a strong, internationally established, territorially viable, economically developed and democratically organized Federation is an irreplaceable governmental and political framework, the historical interest and the safest form of security and realization of equal national, political and other interests of the Croatian and Bosniac nations;

    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    ...Convinced also that on the basis of the realization of such a Federation of the Croatian and Bosniac nations and with the assistance of the international community, a solution to the crisis can be reached and the ground laid for a new, balanced regional order as a guarantee of peace, stability, security and development;
  • Religious groups

    No specific mention.

  • Indigenous people

    No specific mention.

  • Other groups

    No specific mention.

  • Refugees/displaced persons
    Groups→Refugees/displaced persons→Rhetorical
    Page 2, 3.
    Addressing an invitation for a meeting of the group of 22 member states of the "Friends of the Federation" on the highest level, in view of urgent donations and assistance in the face of the humanitarian and refugee catastrophe and to examine long-term joint reconstruction and development strategies.
  • Social class

    No specific mention.


Gender

  • Women, girls and gender

    No specific mention.

  • Men and boys

    No specific mention.

  • LGBTI

    No specific mention.

  • Family

    No specific mention.


State definition

  • Nature of state (general)
    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    Convinced that such a strong, internationally established, territorially viable, economically developed and democratically organized Federation is an irreplaceable governmental and political framework, the historical interest and the safest form of security and realization of equal national, political and other interests of the Croatian and Bosniac nations;

    Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble
    ...Supporting the decision to send Rapid Reaction Forces and jointly establishing that all questions concerning their arrival, mandate and deployment must be organized by way of a special agreement in accordance with the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina;

    Page 2, Untitled Preamble
    Refusing ideas about renewing or creating any kind of new "Yugoslav" state community, considering them to be parallel and spare variations of Great-Serbian hegemony, and supporting normalization in the region on the basis of sovereignty independence and integrity;
  • State configuration
    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    ...Expressing their irrevocable support to the implementation of the Washington Agreement on the establishment of the Federation, as well as its confederal linking to the Republic of Croatia;
  • Self determination

    No specific mention.

  • Referendum

    No specific mention.

  • State symbols

    No specific mention.

  • Independence/secession

    No specific mention.

  • Accession/unification

    No specific mention.

  • Border delimitation
    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    ...Calling on the "FRY" (Serbia and Montenegro) to give up aggression with the aim of creating a "Great Serbia", to stop giving military assistance to the extremists in Knin and in Pale and to agree to the mutual recognition of the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within their internationally recognized borders;
  • Cross-border provision
    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    Expressing their irrevocable support to the implementation of the Washington Agreement on the establishment of the Federation, as well as its confederal linking to the Republic of Croatia;

    Page 2, 4.
    Maintaining regular and constant political consultations aiming at the realisation of the principles and agreements of this Declaration, as well as the preparation of legal, political and other foundations for the establishment of confederal ties with the Republic of Croatia.

Governance

  • Political institutions (new or reformed)

    No specific mention.

  • Elections

    No specific mention.

  • Electoral commission

    No specific mention.

  • Political parties reform

    No specific mention.

  • Civil society

    No specific mention.

  • Traditional/religious leaders

    No specific mention.

  • Public administration

    No specific mention.

  • Constitution

    No specific mention.


Power sharing

  • Political power sharing

    No specific mention.

  • Territorial power sharing

    No specific mention.

  • Economic power sharing

    No specific mention.

  • Military power sharing
    Power sharing→Military power sharing→Proportionality
    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    ...Calling on the Croatian Serbs to reexamine their current militant policy and to accept the peaceful reintegration in the constitutional order of the Republic of Croatia, and the Bosnian Serbs to accept the Contact Group plan;

Human rights and equality

  • Human rights/RoL general

    No specific mention.

  • Bill of rights/similar

    No specific mention.

  • Treaty incorporation

    No specific mention.

  • Civil and political rights

    No specific mention.

  • Socio-economic rights

    No specific mention.


Rights related issues

  • Citizenship

    No specific mention.

  • Democracy

    No specific mention.

  • Detention procedures

    No specific mention.

  • Media and communication

    No specific mention.

  • Mobility/access

    No specific mention.

  • Protection measures

    No specific mention.

  • Other

    No specific mention.


Rights institutions

  • NHRI

    No specific mention.

  • Regional or international human rights institutions

    No specific mention.


Justice sector reform

  • Criminal justice and emergency law

    No specific mention.

  • State of emergency provisions

    No specific mention.

  • Judiciary and courts

    No specific mention.

  • Prisons and detention

    No specific mention.

  • Traditional Laws

    No specific mention.


Socio-economic reconstruction

  • Development or socio-economic reconstruction
    Socio-economic reconstruction→Development or socio-economic reconstruction→Humanitarian assistance
    Page 2, 3.
    Addressing an invitation for a meeting of the group of 22 member states of the "Friends of the Federation" on the highest level, in view of urgent donations and assistance in the face of the humanitarian and refugee catastrophe and to examine long-term joint reconstruction and development strategies.
  • National economic plan

    No specific mention.

  • Natural resources

    No specific mention.

  • International funds
    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    ...Convinced also that on the basis of the realization of such a Federation of the Croatian and Bosniac nations and with the assistance of the international community, a solution to the crisis can be reached and the ground laid for a new, balanced regional order as a guarantee of peace, stability, security and development;

    Page 2, 3.
    Addressing an invitation for a meeting of the group of 22 member states of the "Friends of the Federation" on the highest level, in view of urgent donations and assistance in the face of the humanitarian and refugee catastrophe and to examine long-term joint reconstruction and development strategies.
  • Business

    No specific mention.

  • Taxation

    No specific mention.

  • Banks

    No specific mention.


Land, property and environment

  • Land reform/rights

    No specific mention.

  • Pastoralist/nomadism rights

    No specific mention.

  • Cultural heritage

    No specific mention.

  • Environment

    No specific mention.

  • Water or riparian rights or access

    No specific mention.


Security sector

  • Security Guarantees
    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    ...Calling on the "FRY" (Serbia and Montenegro) to give up aggression with the aim of creating a "Great Serbia", to stop giving military assistance to the extremists in Knin and in Pale and to agree to the mutual recognition of the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within their internationally recognized borders;

    Page 2, Untitled Preamble
    Underlying the common viewpoint that any decision on lifting of arms embargo must be applied simultaneously to Bosnia and Herzegovina and to Croatia;
  • Ceasefire

    No specific mention.

  • Police

    No specific mention.

  • Armed forces
    Page 2, 1.
    ...In this respect, the Republic and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have called upon the Republic of Croatia to extend urgent military and other assistance in the defence against aggression, especially in the area of Bihac, which the Republic of Croatia has accepted. Agreement has also been reached on the continuation of cooperation and constant coordination of defence activities between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Agreement has been reached as well as on the cooperation between the main headquarters of the Croatian Army and the joint headquarters of the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croatian Defence Council for the sake of co- ordination of defence activities in the areas of command, logistics, military-industrial production, communication systems, information and analytical needs and other areas.
  • DDR

    No specific mention.

  • Intelligence services

    No specific mention.

  • Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    ...Having established that the occupying of and the attacks on the UN "safe areas" in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the joint operations by the Bosnian and Croatian Serbs against the UN "safe area" in Bihac, the armed provocations in other areas of Croatia and Bosnia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the refusal of all peace plans by the Bosnian and Croatian Serbs, are part of a unified and joint strategy of continuing aggression and attempt to maintain occupation of territories in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina with the aim to create a "Great Serbia", under the leadership and with the full responsibility of the political and army leadership of the "FRY" (Serbia and Montenegro);

    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    ...Calling on the Croatian Serbs to reexamine their current militant policy and to accept the peaceful reintegration in the constitutional order of the Republic of Croatia, and the Bosnian Serbs to accept the Contact Group plan;
  • Withdrawal of foreign forces

    No specific mention.

  • Corruption

    No specific mention.

  • Crime/organised crime

    No specific mention.

  • Drugs

    No specific mention.

  • Terrorism

    No specific mention.


Transitional justice

  • Transitional justice general

    No specific mention.

  • Amnesty/pardon

    No specific mention.

  • Courts

    No specific mention.

  • Mechanism

    No specific mention.

  • Prisoner release

    No specific mention.

  • Vetting

    No specific mention.

  • Victims

    No specific mention.

  • Missing persons

    No specific mention.

  • Reparations

    No specific mention.

  • Reconciliation

    No specific mention.


Implementation

  • UN signatory

    No specific mention.

  • Other international signatory

    No specific mention.

  • Referendum for agreement

    No specific mention.

  • International mission/force/similar
    Page 1, Untitled Preamble
    ...Underlying in particular that any prolongation of the existing ineffectiveness UNPROFOR in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as the non-application of UNCRO mandate in Croatia will lead to the decision to call off the prolongation their mandate in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina;

    Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble
    ...Supporting the decision to send Rapid Reaction Forces and jointly establishing that all questions concerning their arrival, mandate and deployment must be organized by way of a special agreement in accordance with the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
  • Enforcement mechanism

    No specific mention.

  • Related cases

    No specific mention.

  • Source
    Snezana Trifunovska (ed.) Former Yugoslavia Through Documents: From its dissolution to the peace settlement (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1999) pp.391-393

DECLARATION On Implementation of the Washington Agreement, Joint Defence against Serb Aggression and Reaching a Political Solution Congruent with the Efforts of the International Community

Split, Croatia, 22 July 1995

Confirming their strong commitment and political will to strengthen the cooperation and alliance of the Croatian and Bosniac nations in these fateful moments for the survival of both nations, faced with the increasing violence in the occupied territories of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the uncertainty of the peace process and the inefficacy of the international community;

Having established that the occupying of and the attacks on the UN "safe areas" in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the joint operations by the Bosnian and Croatian Serbs against the UN "safe area" in Bihac, the armed provocations in other areas of Croatia and Bosnia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the refusal of all peace plans by the Bosnian and Croatian Serbs, are part of a unified and joint strategy of continuing aggression and attempt to maintain occupation of territories in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina with the aim to create a "Great Serbia", under the leadership and with the full responsibility of the political and army leadership of the "FRY" (Serbia and Montenegro);

Having established that the continued aggression and violent attempts to keep control of the occupied territories in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, as well as the inadequate results of the peace process, command the leaders of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to fully examine the situation in the region from the stand- point of safeguarding the national survival of the Croatian and Bosniac people and the territorial integrity of the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina;

Expressing their irrevocable support to the implementation of the Washington Agreement on the establishment of the Federation, as well as its confederal linking to the Republic of Croatia;

Convinced that such a strong, internationally established, territorially viable, economically developed and democratically organized Federation is an irreplaceable governmental and political framework, the historical interest and the safest form of security and realization of equal national, political and other interests of the Croatian and Bosniac nations;

Convinced also that on the basis of the realization of such a Federation of the Croatian and Bosniac nations and with the assistance of the international community, a solution to the crisis can be reached and the ground laid for a new, balanced regional order as a guarantee of peace, stability, security and development;

Calling on the Croatian Serbs to reexamine their current militant policy and to accept the peaceful reintegration in the constitutional order of the Republic of Croatia, and the Bosnian Serbs to accept the Contact Group plan;

Calling on the "FRY" (Serbia and Montenegro) to give up aggression with the aim of creating a "Great Serbia", to stop giving military assistance to the extremists in Knin and in Pale and to agree to the mutual recognition of the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within their internationally recocognized borders;

Confirming their readiness to actively contribute to the efforts towards an urgent revival of the peace process on the basis of acceptance of the Contact Group Plan in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as the peaceful reintegration of the temporarily occupied territories of the Republic of Croatia;

Underlying in particular that any prolongation of the existing ineffectiveness UNPROFOR in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as the non-application of UNCRO mandate in Croatia will lead to the decision to call off the prolongation their mandate in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina;

Supporting the decision to send Rapid Reaction Forces and jointly establishing that all questions concerning their arrival, mandate and deployment must be organized by way of a special agreement in accordance with the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina;

Underlying the common viewpoint that any decision on lifting of arms embargo must be applied simultaneously to Bosnia and Herzegovina and to Croatia;

Convinced that the "FRY" (Serbia and Montenegro) carries a special responsibility for the continuation of the crisis and judging that it is necessary to maintain and reinforce the United Nations Security Council sanctions system;

Refusing ideas about renewing or creating any kind of new "Yugoslav" state community, considering them to be parallel and spare variations of Great-Serbian hegemony, and supporting normalization in the region on the basis of sovereignty independence and integrity;

Confirming their interest in the urgent implementation of the aforementioned principles of the Declaration, agreement has been reached on:

1. Widening and strengthening of the defence cooperation on the basis of the Agreement on friendship and cooperation between the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina of July 21st 1992.

In this respect, the Republic and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have called upon the Republic of Croatia to extend urgent military and other assistance in the defence against aggression, especially in the area of Bihac, which the Republic of Croatia has accepted.

Agreement has also been reached on the continuation of cooperation and constant coordination of defence activities between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Agreement has been reached as well as on the cooperation between the main headquarters of the Croatian Army and the joint headquarters of the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croatian Defence Council for the sake of co- ordination of defence activities in the areas of command, logistics, military-industrial production, communication systems, information and analytical needs and other areas.

2. Creation of a political-legal expert group with the duty to urgently analyse and submit proposals for the integration of the functions of the Republic and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina authorities.

3. Addressing an invitation for a meeting of the group of 22 member states of the "Friends of the Federation" on the highest level, in view of urgent donations and assistance in the face of the humanitarian and refuge catastrophe and to examine long-term joint reconstruction and development strategies.

4. Maintaining regular and constant political consultations aiming at the realisation of the principles and agreements of this Declaration, as well as the preparation of legal, political and other foundations for the establishment of confederal ties with the Republic of Croatia.

Dr. Franjo TUDJMAN

President of the Republic of Croatia

Alija IZETBEGOVJC

President of the Presidency of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Kresimir ZUBAK

President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Haris SILAJDZIC

Prime Minister of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina