African National Congress/ Inkatha Freedom Party Agreement

  • Country/entity

    South Africa
  • Region

    Africa (excl MENA)
  • Agreement name

    African National Congress/ Inkatha Freedom Party Agreement
  • Date

    29 Jan 1991
  • Agreement status

    Multiparty signed/agreed
  • Interim arrangement

    Yes
  • Agreement/conflict level

  • Stage

    Pre-negotiation/process
  • Conflict nature

    Government
  • Peace process

    South Africa peace process
  • Parties

    ANC, Inkatha Freedom Party
  • Third parties

    -
  • Description

    Parties commit to bring about an end to violence, particularly in Natal and the Transvaal; and acknowledge right of each organization to exist; call on SAG to ensure fair and effective peacekeeping in affected areas. Agree series of joint mechanisms to implement agreement.


Groups

  • Children/youth
    Groups→Children/youth→Rhetorical
    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    3. Both parties will act to ensure that all persons with authority over public facilities will allow their use by all people irrespective of their political affiliation. This applies to facilities such as venues and facilities specifically established for recreational and a variety of communal activities.
    In particular both parties urge a return to school and normal learning and teaching and will take steps to ensure no pupil is excluded from school by virtue of political affiliation.
  • Disabled persons

    No specific mention.

  • Elderly/age

    No specific mention.

  • Migrant workers

    No specific mention.

  • Racial/ethnic/national group
    Groups→Racial/ethnic/national group→Rhetorical
    Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
    ... The leaders emphasised the need to normalise relationships between the two organisations, in pursuit of the aim of eradicating apartheid and establishing a united, non-racial and democratic South Africa.
  • Religious groups

    No specific mention.

  • Indigenous people

    No specific mention.

  • Other groups

    No specific mention.

  • Refugees/displaced persons
    Groups→Refugees/displaced persons→Rhetorical
    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    5. Both parties believe that it is essential that a reconstruction and development programme is expedited to reduce the potential for violence. This is particularly the case in Natal and the Transvaal hostels. This programme must be above partisan considerations and be designed to meet the needs of all people irrespective of any affiliation they may hold.
    The programme must give priority to refugees and displaced persons arising from the violence and take all steps to peacefully and effectively reintegrate divided communities.
  • Social class

    No specific mention.


Gender

  • Women, girls and gender

    No specific mention.

  • Men and boys

    No specific mention.

  • LGBTI

    No specific mention.

  • Family

    No specific mention.


State definition

  • Nature of state (general)

    No specific mention.

  • State configuration
    Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
    ... The leaders emphasised the need to normalise relationships between the two organisations, in pursuit of the aim of eradicating apartheid and establishing a united, non-racial and democratic South Africa.

    Page 2, Joint declarations of the ANC and IFP
    Further top-level meetings will be held from time to time as need arises to address among other issues, joint activities to eradicate the system of apartheid within the shortest possible time.
  • Self determination

    No specific mention.

  • Referendum

    No specific mention.

  • State symbols

    No specific mention.

  • Independence/secession

    No specific mention.

  • Accession/unification

    No specific mention.

  • Border delimitation

    No specific mention.

  • Cross-border provision

    No specific mention.


Governance

  • Political institutions (new or reformed)

    No specific mention.

  • Elections

    No specific mention.

  • Electoral commission

    No specific mention.

  • Political parties reform

    No specific mention.

  • Civil society
    Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
    ... It was agreed that it was imperative that the decisions taken and proposals adopted should permeate down to the grassroots through the use of all available channels of communications.

    Page 1, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    2. Both parties are committed to political tolerance and freedom of political activity. The ANC and IFP have the right to exist as political organisations with their own policies and programmes. The parties will act to create a climate between them free of forced recruitment and vilification.

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    4. Both parties wish to state their firm belief that no matter what agreements may be reached between them, the attainment of peace also requires the existence of an effective peace-keeping role by the security forces and that the South African government must accept its responsibilities in this regard.
    Both parties agree to take steps to ensure that all security force members would:
    ... - act and function with due respect for the sensitive community situations that exists.

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    5. Both parties believe that it is essential that a reconstruction and development programme is expedited to reduce the potential for violence. This is particularly the case in Natal and the Transvaal hostels. This programme must be above partisan considerations and be designed to meet the needs of all people irrespective of any affiliation they may hold.
    The programme must give priority to refugees and displaced persons arising from the violence and take all steps to peacefully and effectively reintegrate divided communities.

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    In order to implement the principles agreed upon today the high level contact between the IFP and the ANC will continue through existing joint mechanisms. The committees charged with this task will, after due and proper involvement of local leadership and grassroots structures, report to the ANC National Executive and to the IFP Central Committee on obstacles encountered and progress made in terms of the following brief:

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    Principle 1
    To develop practical steps to bring about an end to violence between the organisations in these regions, to facilitate local level peace initiatives and to act as crisis contact points. The committees must consolidate and implement existing local agreements such as the Lower Umfolozi Peace Accord.
  • Traditional/religious leaders

    No specific mention.

  • Public administration

    No specific mention.

  • Constitution

    No specific mention.


Power sharing

  • Political power sharing

    No specific mention.

  • Territorial power sharing

    No specific mention.

  • Economic power sharing
    Power sharing→Economic power sharing→Sharing of resources
    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    Principle 3
    The ANC and the IFP will co-operate in initiating and implementing non-partisan reconstruction programmes in areas devastated by violence.
    All resources available to any one organisation for reconstruction work should, whenever feasible and desirable, be made available to a trust fund to be jointly administered.
  • Military power sharing

    No specific mention.


Human rights and equality

  • Human rights/RoL general

    No specific mention.

  • Bill of rights/similar

    No specific mention.

  • Treaty incorporation

    No specific mention.

  • Civil and political rights
    Human rights and equality→Civil and political rights→Other
    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    Principle 4
    To develop a code or codes of conduct based on accepted principles and practices which do not impinge negatively on the rights of individuals and political groups and which are equally applicable to both organisations and all security forces.
  • Socio-economic rights

    No specific mention.


Rights related issues

  • Citizenship

    No specific mention.

  • Democracy
    Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
    ... The leaders emphasised the need to normalise relationships between the two organisations, in pursuit of the aim of eradicating apartheid and establishing a united, non-racial and democratic South Africa.
  • Detention procedures

    No specific mention.

  • Media and communication
    Rights related issues→Media and communication→Media roles
    Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
    ... It was agreed that it was imperative that the decisions taken and proposals adopted should permeate down to the grassroots through the use of all available channels of communications.

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    Principle 2
    To ensure that all persons affected by Principle 1 are aware of this agreement and that they take active steps to implement it.
  • Mobility/access

    No specific mention.

  • Protection measures

    No specific mention.

  • Other

    No specific mention.


Rights institutions

  • NHRI

    No specific mention.

  • Regional or international human rights institutions

    No specific mention.


Justice sector reform

  • Criminal justice and emergency law

    No specific mention.

  • State of emergency provisions

    No specific mention.

  • Judiciary and courts

    No specific mention.

  • Prisons and detention

    No specific mention.

  • Traditional Laws

    No specific mention.


Socio-economic reconstruction

  • Development or socio-economic reconstruction
    Socio-economic reconstruction→Development or socio-economic reconstruction→Socio-economic development
    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    5. Both parties believe that it is essential that a reconstruction and development programme is expedited to reduce the potential for violence. This is particularly the case in Natal and the Transvaal hostels. This programme must be above partisan considerations and be designed to meet the needs of all people irrespective of any affiliation they may hold.
    The programme must give priority to refugees and displaced persons arising from the violence and take all steps to peacefully and effectively reintegrate divided communities.
    Socio-economic reconstruction→Development or socio-economic reconstruction→Infrastructure and reconstruction
    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    Principle 3
    The ANC and the IFP will co-operate in initiating and implementing non-partisan reconstruction programmes in areas devastated by violence.
    All resources available to any one organisation for reconstruction work should, whenever feasible and desirable, be made available to a trust fund to be jointly administered.
  • National economic plan

    No specific mention.

  • Natural resources

    No specific mention.

  • International funds

    No specific mention.

  • Business

    No specific mention.

  • Taxation

    No specific mention.

  • Banks

    No specific mention.


Land, property and environment

  • Land reform/rights

    No specific mention.

  • Pastoralist/nomadism rights

    No specific mention.

  • Cultural heritage

    No specific mention.

  • Environment

    No specific mention.

  • Water or riparian rights or access

    No specific mention.


Security sector

  • Security Guarantees
    Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
    ... The primary purpose of the meeting was to explore ways and means to bring about the final cessation of the violence which has already cost more than 8000 lives and caused millions of rands of damage.

    Page 1, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    1. Both parties call for an end to the present violence in Natal and the Transvaal. They will take steps to prevent acts of violence and destruction among their members or carried out by their members and they will act to deter other parties from instigating and carrying out acts of violence and destruction.

    Page 1, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    2. Both parties are committed to political tolerance and freedom of political activity. The ANC and IFP have the right to exist as political organisations with their own policies and programmes. The parties will act to create a climate between them free of forced recruitment and vilification.

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    5. Both parties believe that it is essential that a reconstruction and development programme is expedited to reduce the potential for violence. This is particularly the case in Natal and the Transvaal hostels. This programme must be above partisan considerations and be designed to meet the needs of all people irrespective of any affiliation they may hold.

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    Principle 1
    To develop practical steps to bring about an end to violence between the organisations in these regions, to facilitate local level peace initiatives and to act as crisis contact points. The committees must consolidate and implement existing local agreements such as the Lower Umfolozi Peace Accord.
  • Ceasefire
    Security sector→Ceasefire→General commitments
    Page 2, Joint declarations of the ANC and IFP
    We, the leaders of the African National Congress and the Inkatha Freedom Party meeting in Durban on 29 January 1991, appalled at the tragic violence which has decimated many of our communities over the years, now solemnly:
    1. Call upon all our people, members of the ANC and IFP as well as our allies to cease all attacks against one another with immediate effect, and to promote the quest for peace within our communities;
    2. Call upon our membership and supporters to desist from vilification of either of our organisations and leaders;
    3. Further call on all our members and supporters not to coerce or intimidate anyone in pursuit of their strategies and programmes;
    5. Resolve to organise a joint tour of all affected areas, by the deputy president of the ANC, Dr Nelson Mandela, and the president of the IFP, Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi. Concrete arrangements for the tour will be made by appropriate joint structures.
  • Police

    No specific mention.

  • Armed forces
    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    4. Both parties wish to state their firm belief that no matter what agreements may be reached between them, the attainment of peace also requires the existence of an effective peace-keeping role by the security forces and that the South African government must accept its responsibilities in this regard.
    Both parties agree to take steps to ensure that all security force members would:
    - act without political bias;
    - receive professional and appropriate training as a peace-keeping force; and
    - act and function with due respect for the sensitive community situations that exists.

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    Principle 4
    To develop a code or codes of conduct based on accepted principles and practices which do not impinge negatively on the rights of individuals and political groups and which are equally applicable to both organisations and all security forces.
  • DDR

    No specific mention.

  • Intelligence services

    No specific mention.

  • Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
    Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
    ... The leaders emphasised the need to normalise relationships between the two organisations, in pursuit of the aim of eradicating apartheid and establishing a united, non-racial and democratic South Africa.

    Page 1, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    1. Both parties call for an end to the present violence in Natal and the Transvaal. They will take steps to prevent acts of violence and destruction among their members or carried out by their members and they will act to deter other parties from instigating and carrying out acts of violence and destruction.

    Page 1, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, INTRODUCTION
    2. Both parties are committed to political tolerance and freedom of political activity. The ANC and IFP have the right to exist as political organisations with their own policies and programmes. The parties will act to create a climate between them free of forced recruitment and vilification.

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    Principle 1
    To develop practical steps to bring about an end to violence between the organisations in these regions, to facilitate local level peace initiatives and to act as crisis contact points. The committees must consolidate and implement existing local agreements such as the Lower Umfolozi Peace Accord.

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    Principle 2
    To ensure that all persons affected by Principle 1 are aware of this agreement and that they take active steps to implement it.

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    Principle 4
    To develop a code or codes of conduct based on accepted principles and practices which do not impinge negatively on the rights of individuals and political groups and which are equally applicable to both organisations and all security forces.

    Page 2, Joint declarations of the ANC and IFP
    We, the leaders of the African National Congress and the Inkatha Freedom Party meeting in Durban on 29 January 1991, appalled at the tragic violence which has decimated many of our communities over the years, now solemnly:
    1. Call upon all our people, members of the ANC and IFP as well as our allies to cease all attacks against one another with immediate effect, and to promote the quest for peace within our communities;
    2. Call upon our membership and supporters to desist from vilification of either of our organisations and leaders;
    3. Further call on all our members and supporters not to coerce or intimidate anyone in pursuit of their strategies and programmes;
    5. Resolve to organise a joint tour of all affected areas, by the deputy president of the ANC, Dr Nelson Mandela, and the president of the IFP, Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi. Concrete arrangements for the tour will be made by appropriate joint structures.
  • Withdrawal of foreign forces

    No specific mention.

  • Corruption

    No specific mention.

  • Crime/organised crime

    No specific mention.

  • Drugs

    No specific mention.

  • Terrorism

    No specific mention.


Transitional justice

  • Transitional justice general

    No specific mention.

  • Amnesty/pardon

    No specific mention.

  • Courts

    No specific mention.

  • Mechanism

    No specific mention.

  • Prisoner release

    No specific mention.

  • Vetting

    No specific mention.

  • Victims

    No specific mention.

  • Missing persons

    No specific mention.

  • Reparations

    No specific mention.

  • Reconciliation
    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    Principle 1
    To develop practical steps to bring about an end to violence between the organisations in these regions, to facilitate local level peace initiatives and to act as crisis contact points. The committees must consolidate and implement existing local agreements such as the Lower Umfolozi Peace Accord.

Implementation

  • UN signatory

    No specific mention.

  • Other international signatory

    No specific mention.

  • Referendum for agreement

    No specific mention.

  • International mission/force/similar

    No specific mention.

  • Enforcement mechanism
    [Summary: 'Implementation': Provides for joint committee to implement agreement to develop practical steps to end violence, consolidating and implementing existing local agmts; joint mechanism to monitor all violations of the agmts and recommend appropriate action.]

    Page 2, Agreement between the ANC and the IFP, IMPLEMENTATION
    In order to implement the principles agreed upon today the high level contact between the IFP and the ANC will continue through existing joint mechanisms. The committees charged with this task will, after due and proper involvement of local leadership and grassroots structures, report to the ANC National Executive and to the IFP Central Committee on obstacles encountered and progress made in terms of the following brief:

    Page 2, Joint declarations of the ANC and IFP
    We, the leaders of the African National Congress and the Inkatha Freedom Party meeting in Durban on 29 January 1991, appalled at the tragic violence which has decimated many of our communities over the years, now solemnly:
    ... 4. Resolve to use the existing joint mechanism to monitor all violations of the agreement and recommend appropriate action;
  • Related cases

    No specific mention.

  • Source
    ANC website
    www.anc.org.za [link no longer working]

APPENDIX E

AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS/INKATHA FREEDOM PARTY AGREEMENT:

29 JANUARY 1991

Joint statement of the IFP/ANC meeting

A meeting of delegates of the Central Committee of the IFP and the National Executive Committee of the ANC, led respectively by Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Dr Nelson Mandela, deputy president of the ANC, was held in Durban on 29 January 1991

The consultation between the two organisations was held under the joint chairmanship of Dr F T Mdlalose, the national chairman of IFP, and Mr A Nzo, secretary general of the ANC.

Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi, president of IFP, and Dr Nelson Mandela, deputy president of the ANC, both addressed the meeting.

Both emphasised the historic importance of the occasion.

They stressed that they were extremely conscious of the high national and international expectations for the success of the meeting.

The primary purpose of the meeting was to explore ways and means to bring about the final cessation of the violence which has already cost more than 8000 lives and caused millions of rands of damage.

The leaders emphasised the need to normalise relationships between the two organisations, in pursuit of the aim of eradicating apartheid and establishing a united, non-racial and democratic South Africa.

It was agreed that it was imperative that the decisions taken and proposals adopted should permeate down to the grassroots through the use of all available channels of communications.

Discussions were far reaching and frank and both sides agreed on the need for further discussions.

At the end of the discussions the following agreement and joint declaration were agreed upon:

Agreement between the ANC and the IFP

INTRODUCTION

1. Both parties call for an end to the present violence in Natal and the Transvaal.

They will take steps to prevent acts of violence and destruction among their members or carried out by their members and they will act to deter other parties from instigating and carrying out acts of violence and destruction.

2. Both parties are committed to political tolerance and freedom of political activity.

The ANC and IFP have the right to exist as political organisations with their own policies and programmes.

The parties will act to create a climate between them free of forced recruitment and vilification.

3. Both parties will act to ensure that all persons with authority over public facilities will allow their use by all people irrespective of their political affiliation.

This applies to facilities such as venues and facilities specifically established for recreational and a variety of communal activities.

In particular both parties urge a return to school and normal learning and teaching and will take steps to ensure no pupil is excluded from school by virtue of political affiliation.

4. Both parties wish to state their firm belief that no matter what agreements may be reached between them, the attainment of peace also requires the existence of an effective peace-keeping role by the security forces and that the South African government must accept its responsibilities in this regard.

Both parties agree to take steps to ensure that all security force members would:

act without political bias;

receive professional and appropriate training as a peace-keeping force;

and

act and function with due respect for the sensitive community situations that exists.

5. Both parties believe that it is essential that a reconstruction and development programme ise xpedited to reduce the potential for violence.

This is particularly the case in Natal and the Transvaal hostels.

This programme must be above partisan considerations and be designed to meet the needs of all people irrespective of any affiliation they may hold.

The programme must give priority to refugees and displaced persons arising from the violence and take all steps to peacefully and effectively reintegrate divided communities.

IMPLEMENTATION

In order to implement the principles agreed upon today the high level contact between the IFP and the ANC will continue through existing joint mechanisms.

The committees charged with this task will, after due and proper involvement of local leadership and grassroots structures, report to the ANC National Executive and to the IFP Central Committee on obstacles encountered and progress made in terms of the following brief:

Principle 1

To develop practical steps to bring about an end to violence between the organisations in these regions, to facilitate local level peace initiatives and to act as crisis contact points.

The committees must consolidate and implement existing local agreements such as the Lower Umfolozi Peace Accord.

Principle 2

To ensure that all persons affected by Principle 1 are aware of this agreement and that they take active steps to implement it.

Principle 3

The ANC and the IFP will co-operate in initiating and implementing non-partisan reconstruction programmes in areas devastated by violence.

All resources available to any one organisation for reconstruction work should, whenever feasible and desirable, be made available to a trust fund to be jointly administered.

Principle 4

To develop a code or codes of conduct based on accepted principles and practices which do not impinge negatively on the rights of individuals and political groups and which are equally applicable to both organisations and all security forces.

Joint declarations of the ANC and IFP

We, the leaders of the African National Congress and the Inkatha Freedom Party meeting in Durban on 29 January 1991, appalled at the tragic violence which has decimated many of our communities over the years, now solemnly:

1. Call upon all our people, members of the ANC and IFP as well as our allies to cease all attacks against one another with immediate effect, and to promote the quest for peace within our communities;

2. Call upon our membership and supporters to desist from vilification of either of our organisations and leaders;

3. Further call on all our members and supporters not to coerce or intimidate anyone in pursuit of their strategies and programmes;

4. Resolve to use the existing joint mechanism to monitor all violations of the agreement and recommend appropriate action;

5. Resolve to organise a joint tour of all affected areas, by the deputy president of the ANC, Dr Nelson Mandela, and the president of the IFP, Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi.

Concrete arrangements for the tour will be made by appropriate joint structures.

Further top-level meetings will be held from time to time as need arises to address among other issues, joint activities to eradicate the system of apartheid within the shortest possible time.