Pact on Security, Stability, and Development in the Great Lakes Region

  • Country/entity

    Angola
    Burundi
    Central African Republic
    Democratic Republic of Congo
    Kenya
    Republic of Congo
    Rwanda
    Sudan
    Tanzania
    Uganda
    Zambia
    African Great Lakes
  • Region

    Africa (excl MENA)
    Africa (excl MENA)
    Africa (excl MENA)
    Africa (excl MENA)
    Africa (excl MENA)
    Africa (excl MENA)
    Africa (excl MENA)
    Africa (excl MENA)
    Africa (excl MENA)
    Africa (excl MENA)
    Africa (excl MENA)
    Africa (excl MENA)
  • Agreement name

    Pact on Security, Stability, and Development in the Great Lakes Region
  • Date

    15 Dec 2006
  • Agreement status

    Multiparty signed/agreed
  • Interim arrangement

    Yes
  • Agreement/conflict level

    Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) ( African Great Lakes Process (2004 - 2013) )
  • Stage

    Implementation/renegotiation
  • Conflict nature

    Government
  • Peace process

    African Great Lakes: Regional Process
  • Parties

    H.E. JOSE EDUARDO DOS SANTO, President of the Republic of Angola; H.E. FRANCOIS BOZIZE, President of the Central African Republic; H.E. JOSEPH KABILA, President of the Democratic Republic of Congo; H.E. PAUL KAGAME, President of the Republic of Rwanda; H.E. JAKAYA MRISHO KIKWETE, President of the United Republic of Tanzania; H.E. LEVY MWANAWASA President of the Republic of Zambia; H.E. PIERRE NKURUNZIZA, President of the Republic of Burundi; H.E. DENIS SASSOU-NGUESSO, President of the Republic of Congo; H.E. MWAI KIBAKI, President of the Republic of Kenya; H.E. OMER HASSAN AHMED EL-BASHIR, President of the Republic of the Sudan; H.E. YOWERI KAGUTA MUSEVENI, President of the Republic of Uganda
  • Third parties

    -
  • Description

    The pact aims at providing a legal framework governing relations between its signatories, through additional protocols and programmes of action in the following areas : non-aggression and mutual defense, democracy and good governance, judicial cooperation, pevention and punishment of the crimes of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity and all forms of discrimination, struggle against the illegal exploitation of natural resources, specific reconstruction and development zone, prevention and suppression of sexual violence against women and children, protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, property rights and returning persons, management of information and communication. It also establishes follow-up mechanisms comprising the Summit, a Regional Inter-Ministerial Committee and a conference secretariat.


Groups

  • Children/youth
    Groups→Children/youth→Rhetorical
    Page 3, Preamble
    ... Determined to ensure the strict observance of the standards and principles of international humanitarian law, notably those relating to the protection and assistance of women, children, refugees and displaced persons, the violations of which have seriously affected the populations concerned;

    Page 3-4, Preamble
    ... Reaffirming our decision taken at Dar-es-Salaam to declare the Great Lakes Region a specific zone of reconstruction and development and jointly determined to meet the challenge of reconstruction and development with the full participation of all our peoples, particularly in partnership with the civil society organizations, young people, women, the private sector and religious organizations, as well as in close cooperation with the relevant regional organizations, the African Union, the United Nations, and the international community in general;
    Groups→Children/youth→Substantive
    Page 11, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 11, Protocol on the Prevention and Suppression of Sexual Violence Against Women and Children,
    The Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on the Prevention and Suppression of Violence Against Women and Children, to combat sexual violence against women and children through preventing, criminalizing and punishing acts of sexual violence, both in times of peace and in times of war, in accordance with national laws and international criminal law.
  • Disabled persons

    No specific mention.

  • Elderly/age

    No specific mention.

  • Migrant workers

    No specific mention.

  • Racial/ethnic/national group
    Groups→Racial/ethnic/national group→Substantive
    Page 10, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 8 Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination
    ... d) To proscribe all propaganda and all organisations which are inspired by ideas or theories based on the superiority of a race or a group of people of a particular ethnic origin, or which try to justify or encourage any form of ethnic, religious, racial or gender based hatred or discrimination.
  • Religious groups
    Groups→Religious groups→Rhetorical
    Page 3-4, Preamble
    ... Reaffirming our decision taken at Dar-es-Salaam to declare the Great Lakes Region a specific zone of reconstruction and development and jointly determined to meet the challenge of reconstruction and development with the full participation of all our peoples, particularly in partnership with the civil society organizations, young people, women, the private sector and religious organizations, as well as in close cooperation with the relevant regional organizations, the African Union, the United Nations, and the international community in general;
    Groups→Religious groups→Substantive
    Page 10, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 8 Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination
    ... d) To proscribe all propaganda and all organisations which are inspired by ideas or theories based on the superiority of a race or a group of people of a particular ethnic origin, or which try to justify or encourage any form of ethnic, religious, racial or gender based hatred or discrimination.
  • Indigenous people

    No specific mention.

  • Other groups

    No specific mention.

  • Refugees/displaced persons
    Groups→Refugees/displaced persons→Rhetorical
    Page 3, Preamble
    ... Determined to ensure the strict observance of the standards and principles of international humanitarian law, notably those relating to the protection and assistance of women, children, refugees and displaced persons, the violations of which have seriously affected the populations concerned;
    Groups→Refugees/displaced persons→Substantive
    Page 12, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 12, Protocol on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons,
    The Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons, to provide special protection and assistance to internally displaced persons and in particular to adopt and implement the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement as proposed by the United Nations Secretariat.

    Page 12, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 13, Protocol on Property Rights of Returning Persons,
    The Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on the Property Rights of Returning Persons, to provide legal protection for the property of internally displaced persons and refugees in their countries of origin, and in particular to:
    a) Adopt legal principles whereby the Member States shall ensure that refugees and internally displaced persons,
    upon returning to their areas of origin, recover their property with the assistance of the local traditional and administrative authorities;
    b) Create a legal framework for resolving disputes arising from the recovery of property previously occupied or owned by returning persons.

    Page 15, Chapter III, Article 20, Programme of Action on Humanitarian, Social and Environmental Issues
    1. The Member States undertake to find lasting solutions to guarantee protection and assistance to populations affected by political conflicts in the Great Lakes Region, as well as by humanitarian, social, and environmental catastrophes, by implementing a Programme of Action on Humanitarian, Social and Environmental Issues, which is aimed at:
    ... a) Promoting policies aimed at disaster prevention, protection, assistance, and the search for durable solutions for refugees and internally displaced persons, as well as their environment;
  • Social class

    No specific mention.


Gender

  • Women, girls and gender
    Page 3, Preamble,
    ... Determined to ensure the strict observance of the standards and principles of international humanitarian law, notably those relating to the protection and assistance of women, children, refugees and displaced persons, the violations of which have seriously affected the populations concerned;

    Page 3-4, Preamble,
    ... Reaffirming our decision taken at Dar-es-Salaam to declare the Great Lakes Region a specific zone of reconstruction and development and jointly determined to meet the challenge of reconstruction and development with the full participation of all our peoples, particularly in partnership with the civil society organizations, young people, women, the private sector and religious organizations, as well as in close cooperation with the relevant regional organizations, the African Union, the United Nations, and the international community in general;

    Page 10, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 8, Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination,
    ... d) To proscribe all propaganda and all organisations which are inspired by ideas or theories based on the superiority of a race or a group of people of a particular ethnic origin, or which try to justify or encourage any form of ethnic, religious, racial or gender based hatred or discrimination.

    Page 11, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 11, Protocol on the Prevention and Suppression of Sexual Violence Against Women and Children,
    The Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on the Prevention and Suppression of Violence Against Women and Children, to combat sexual violence against women and children through preventing, criminalizing and punishing acts of sexual violence, both in times of peace and in times of war, in accordance with national laws and international criminal law.

    Page 19, Chapter V. The Regional Follow-up Mechanism, Article 25, Ad-hoc Group of Experts,
    The Inter-Ministerial Committee may nominate an ad-hoc group of a maximum number of six independent experts composed of men and women in equal numbers and of high moral integrity, whose mission shall be to:
  • Men and boys

    No specific mention.

  • LGBTI

    No specific mention.

  • Family

    No specific mention.


State definition

  • Nature of state (general)
    Page 3, Preamble,
    ... Mindful of the need to respect democracy and good governance, the fundamental principles enshrined in the UN Charter and the African Union Constitutive Act, notably territorial integrity, national sovereignty, non-interference and non-aggression, prohibition of any Member State from allowing the use of its territory as a base for aggression or subversion against another Member State;
  • State configuration

    No specific mention.

  • Self determination

    No specific mention.

  • Referendum

    No specific mention.

  • State symbols

    No specific mention.

  • Independence/secession

    No specific mention.

  • Accession/unification

    No specific mention.

  • Border delimitation

    No specific mention.

  • Cross-border provision

    No specific mention.


Governance

  • Political institutions (new or reformed)

    No specific mention.

  • Elections

    No specific mention.

  • Electoral commission

    No specific mention.

  • Political parties reform

    No specific mention.

  • Civil society
    Page 3-4, Preamble,
    ... Reaffirming our decision taken at Dar-es-Salaam to declare the Great Lakes Region a specific zone of reconstruction and development and jointly determined to meet the challenge of reconstruction and development with the full participation of all our peoples, particularly in partnership with the civil society organizations, young people, women, the private sector and religious organizations, as well as in close cooperation with the relevant regional organizations, the African Union, the United Nations, and the international community in general;

    Page 13, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 14, Protocol on the Management of Information and Communication,
    ... c) To provide training and civic education through the media.

    Page 14, Chapter III. The Programmes Of Action, Article 18, The Programme of Action for Democracy and Good Governance,
    ... b) Consolidate the democratization process by enhancing institutional capacity, by promoting political participation of all segments of society, and by developing and implementing communication and information strategies;
  • Traditional/religious leaders

    No specific mention.

  • Public administration

    No specific mention.

  • Constitution

    No specific mention.


Power sharing

  • Political power sharing

    No specific mention.

  • Territorial power sharing

    No specific mention.

  • Economic power sharing

    No specific mention.

  • Military power sharing

    No specific mention.


Human rights and equality

  • Human rights/RoL general
    Page 8-9, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 6 Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance,
    The Member States undertake to promote and observe democracy and good governance in accordance with the Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance, and in particular:
    b) To set up institutions to promote good governance, the rule of law and the respect for human rights through constitutional systems based on the separation of powers, political pluralism, the regular organisation of free, democratic and credible elections, the participatory, transparent and responsible management of business, institutions and public property.

    Page 9, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 8 Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination,
    The Member States, in accordance with the Protocol on the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination, recognize that the crime of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity are crimes under international law and against the rights of peoples, and undertake in particular:
    a) To refrain from, prevent and punish, such crimes;

    Page 14, Chapter III. The Programmes Of Action, Article 18, The Programme of Action for Democracy and Good Governance,
    1. The Member States undertake to entrench values, principles and norms on democracy, good governance, and respect for human rights, in the framework of the Programme of Action for Democracy and Good Governance, which aims, in particular, to:
    a) Establish regional mechanisms which work together to strengthen the rule of law in the region, to promote human rights, and to combat impunity;
  • Bill of rights/similar

    No specific mention.

  • Treaty incorporation
    Page 3, Preamble
    ... Mindful of the need to respect democracy and good governance, the fundamental principles enshrined in the UN Charter and the African Union Constitutive Act, notably territorial integrity, national sovereignty, non-interference and non-aggression, prohibition of any Member State from allowing the use of its territory as a base for aggression or subversion against another Member State;

    Page 9, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 8, Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination
    The Member States, in accordance with the Protocol on the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination, recognize that the crime of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity are crimes under international law and against the rights of peoples, and undertake in particular:
    a) To refrain from, prevent and punish, such crimes;
  • Civil and political rights
    Human rights and equality→Civil and political rights→Equality
    Page 9, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 8, Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination,
    ... b) To condemn and eliminate all forms of discrimination and discriminatory practices;
    ... d) To proscribe all propaganda and all organisations which are inspired by ideas or theories based on the superiority of a race or a group of people of a particular ethnic origin, or which try to justify or encourage any form of ethnic, religious, racial or gender based hatred or discrimination.
    Human rights and equality→Civil and political rights→Thought, opinion, conscience and religion
    Page 12-13, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 14 Protocol on the Management of Information and Communication
    a) To promote the free exchange of ideas;
    b) To promote freedom of expression and the press;
  • Socio-economic rights

    No specific mention.


Rights related issues

  • Citizenship

    No specific mention.

  • Democracy
    Page 3, Preamble,
    ... Mindful of the need to respect democracy and good governance, the fundamental principles enshrined in the UN Charter and the African Union Constitutive Act, notably territorial integrity, national sovereignty, non-interference and non-aggression, prohibition of any Member State from allowing the use of its territory as a base for aggression or subversion against another Member State;

    Page 8-9, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 6 Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance
    The Member States undertake to promote and observe democracy and good governance in accordance with the Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance, and in particular:
    a) To promote and observe democratic principles and standards;
    b) To set up institutions to promote good governance, the rule of law and the respect for human rights through constitutional systems based on the separation of powers, political pluralism, the regular organisation of free, democratic and credible elections, the participatory, transparent and responsible management of business, institutions and public property.

    Page 11, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 10 Protocol on the Specific Reconstruction and Development Zone
    ... b) A Special Reconstruction and Development Fund for the purpose of supporting the implementation of the Protocols and Programmes of Action selected in the priority areas of peace and security, democracy and good governance, economic development and regional integration, and humanitarian, social and environmental issues.

    Page 14, Chapter III. The Programmes Of Action, Article 18, The Programme of Action for Democracy and Good Governance
    1. The Member States undertake to entrench values, principles and norms on democracy, good governance, and respect for human rights, in the framework of the Programme of Action for Democracy and Good Governance, which aims, in particular, to:
    ... b) Consolidate the democratization process by enhancing institutional capacity, by promoting political participation of all segments of society, and by developing and implementing communication and information strategies;
  • Detention procedures

    No specific mention.

  • Media and communication
    Rights related issues→Media and communication→Media roles
    Page 9-10, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 8, Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination,
    The Member States, in accordance with the Protocol on the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination, recognize that the crime of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity are crimes under international law and against the rights of peoples, and undertake in particular:
    ... d) To proscribe all propaganda and all organisations which are inspired by ideas or theories based on the superiority of a race or a group of people of a particular ethnic origin, or which try to justify or encourage any form of ethnic, religious, racial or gender based hatred or discrimination.
  • Mobility/access

    No specific mention.

  • Protection measures
    Rights related issues→Protection measures→Protection of groups
    Page 3, Preamble
    Determined to ensure the strict observance of the standards and principles of international humanitarian law, notably those relating to the protection and assistance of women, children, refugees and displaced persons, the violations of which have seriously affected the populations concerned;

    Page 12, Article 12 Protocol on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons
    The Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons, to provide special protection and assistance to internally displaced persons and in particular to adopt and implement the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement as proposed by the United Nations Secretariat.

    Page 12, Article 13 Protocol on Property Rights of Returning Persons
    The Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on the Property Rights of Returning Persons, to provide legal protection for the property of internally displaced persons and refugees in their countries of origin, and in particular to:
    a) Adopt legal principles whereby the Member States shall ensure that refugees and internally displaced persons, upon returning to their areas of origin, recover their property with the assistance of the local traditional and administrative authorities;
    b) Create a legal framework for resolving disputes arising from the recovery of property previously occupied or owned by returning persons.

    Page 15, Article 20 Programme of Action on Humanitarian, Social and Environmental Issues
    1. The Member States undertake to find lasting solutions to guarantee protection and assistance to populations affected by political conflicts in the Great Lakes Region, as well as by humanitarian, social, and environmental catastrophes, by implementing a Programme of Action on Humanitarian, Social and Environmental Issues, which is aimed at:
    a) Promoting policies aimed at disaster prevention, protection, assistance, and the search for durable solutions for refugees and internally displaced persons, as well as their environment;
    Rights related issues→Protection measures→Other
    Page 14, Article 18 The Programme of Action for Democracy and Good Governance
    1. The Member States undertake to entrench values, principles and norms on democracy, good governance, and respect for human rights, in the framework of the Programme of Action for Democracy and Good Governance, which aims, in particular, to:
    c) Harmonize and coordinate policies on the protection and rational management of natural resources in the region
  • Other

    No specific mention.


Rights institutions

  • NHRI

    No specific mention.

  • Regional or international human rights institutions

    No specific mention.


Justice sector reform

  • Criminal justice and emergency law
    Justice sector reform→Criminal justice and emergency law→Delimitation of powers in Criminal Justice System
    Page 9, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 7 Protocol on Judicial Cooperation
    The Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on Judicial Cooperation, to cooperate in matters of extradition, judicial investigation and prosecution.
  • State of emergency provisions

    No specific mention.

  • Judiciary and courts
    Page 9, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 7 Protocol on Judicial Cooperation
    the Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on Judicial Cooperation, to cooperate in matters of extradition, judicial investigation and prosecution.
  • Prisons and detention

    No specific mention.

  • Traditional Laws

    No specific mention.


Socio-economic reconstruction

  • Development or socio-economic reconstruction
    Socio-economic reconstruction→Development or socio-economic reconstruction→Socio-economic development
    Page 11, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 10, Protocol on the Specific Reconstruction and Development Zone,
    The Member States agree, in accordance with the Protocol on the Specific Reconstruction and Development Zone, to implement, an economic development and local regional integration process, pursuant to the decision contained in the Dar-es- Salaam Declaration to declare the Great Lakes Region as a Specific Reconstruction and Development Zone, and for this purpose, to institute in particular:
    a) Transborder development basins to promote local regional integration of the border populations;
    b) A Special Reconstruction and Development Fund for the purpose of supporting the implementation of the Protocols and Programmes of Action selected in the priority areas of peace and security, democracy and good governance, economic development and regional integration, and humanitarian, social and environmental issues.

    Page 15, Chapter III. The Programmes Of Action, Article 19, The Programme of Action for Democracy and Good Governance,
    1. The Member States undertake to jointly promote a prosperous, integrated economic space, to improve the standard of living of its populations, and to contribute to the development of the Region, by implementing the Programme of Action for Economic Development and Regional Integration with the aim of:
    a) Promoting cooperation and economic integration by harmonizing and coordinating national and regional policies with relevant regional economic communities so as to improve stability and economic competitiveness, and to reduce poverty;
    b) Developing common infrastructure in the areas of energy, transport and communications;
    c) Promoting local regional integration by strengthening multi-sectoral cooperation and solidarity among the border populations of neighbouring Sates.

    Page 16, Chapter IV. The Special Fund For Reconstruction and Development, Article 21, Legal framework,
    1. A Special Fund for the reconstruction and development of the Great Lakes Region shall be created in accordance with the Protocol on the Specific Reconstruction and Development Zone, but the legal status of such a Fund shall be defined in a separate document;
    2. The modality of the operation of the Fund shall be determined by a specific legal framework to be agreed with the African Development Bank, which shall manage the said Fund;
    3. The financing of the Fund shall be ensured by mandatory contributions from the Member States as well as by voluntary contributions from cooperating and development partners.
  • National economic plan

    No specific mention.

  • Natural resources
    Page 10, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 9, Protocol Against the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources,
    The Member States agree, in accordance with the Protocol Against the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources, to put in place regional rules and mechanisms for combating the illegal exploitation of natural resources which constitute a violation of the States’ right of permanent sovereignty over their natural resources and which represent a serious source of insecurity, instability, tension and conflicts, and in particular:
    a) To ensure that any activity bearing on natural resources must scrupulously respect the permanent sovereignty of each State over its natural resources and comply with harmonised national legislation as well as the principles of transparency, responsibility, equity, and respect for the environment and human
    settlements;
    b) To put to an end, through national and international legal means, to impunity in the illegal exploitation of natural resources by natural persons and legal entities;
    c) To put in place a regional certification mechanism for the exploitation, monitoring and verification of natural resources within the Great Lakes Region.

    Page 14, Chapter III. The Programmes Of Action, Article 18, The Programme of Action for Democracy and Good Governance,
    ... c) Harmonize and coordinate policies on the protection and rational management of natural resources in the region.
  • International funds
    Page 16, Chapter IV. The Special Fund For Reconstruction and Development, Article 21, Legal framework,
    ... 3. The financing of the Fund shall be ensured by mandatory contributions from the Member States as well as by voluntary contributions from cooperating and development partners.
  • Business

    No specific mention.

  • Taxation

    No specific mention.

  • Banks

    No specific mention.


Land, property and environment

  • Land reform/rights

    No specific mention.

  • Pastoralist/nomadism rights

    No specific mention.

  • Cultural heritage

    No specific mention.

  • Environment
    Page 11, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 10, Protocol on the Specific Reconstruction and Development Zone,
    ... b) A Special Reconstruction and Development Fund for the purpose of supporting the implementation of the Protocols and Programmes of Action selected in the priority areas of peace and security, democracy and good governance, economic development and regional integration, and humanitarian, social and environmental issues.

    Page 15-16, Chapter III. The Programmes of Action, Article 20, Programme of Action on Humanitarian, Social and Environmental Issues,
    1. The Member States undertake to find lasting solutions to guarantee protection and assistance to populations affected by political conflicts in the Great Lakes Region, as well as by humanitarian, social, and environmental catastrophes, by implementing a Programme of Action on Humanitarian, Social and Environmental Issues, which is aimed at:
    a) Promoting policies aimed at disaster prevention, protection, assistance, and the search for durable solutions for refugees and internally displaced persons, as well as their environment;
    b) Promoting relevant policies to guarantee access to basic social services by the populations affected by conflicts and effects of natural disasters.
  • Water or riparian rights or access

    No specific mention.


Security sector

  • Security Guarantees
    Page 13, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 17, The Programme of Action for Peace and Security,
    The Member States undertake to ensure sustainable peace and security in the whole Region of the Great Lakes, in the framework of the Programme of Action for Peace and Security, which is aimed at
    a) Promoting the joint management of the security of common borders;
    b) Promoting, maintaining and enhancing cooperation in the fields of peace, con- flict prevention and the peaceful settlement of disputes;
    c) Promoting inter-State cooperation on general security issues including combating the illicit proliferation of small arms and light weapons, preventing and combating organized transnational criminal activities and terrorism.
  • Ceasefire

    No specific mention.

  • Police

    No specific mention.

  • Armed forces
    Page 8, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 5 Protocol on Non-aggression and Mutual Defence in the Great Lakes Region,
    1. The Member States undertake to maintain peace and security in accordance with the Protocol on Non-aggression and Mutual Defence in the Great Lakes Region, and in particular:
    a) To renounce the threat or the use of force as policies means or instrument aimed at settling disagreements or disputes or to achieve national objectives in the Great Lakes Region;
    b) To abstain from sending or supporting armed opposition forces or armed groups or insurgents onto the territory of other Member States, or from tolerating the presence on their territories of armed groups or insurgents engaged in armed conflicts or involved in acts of violence or subversion against the Government of another State;
    d) If any Member State fails to comply with the provisions of this Article, an extraordinary Summit shall be convened to consider appropriate action.
  • DDR
    Security sector→DDR→Demilitarisation provisions
    Page 8, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 5, Protocol on Non-aggression and Mutual Defence in the Great Lakes Region,
    ... c) To cooperate at all levels with a view to disarming and dismantling existing armed rebel groups and to promote the joint and participatory management of state and human security on their common borders.
  • Intelligence services

    No specific mention.

  • Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
    Page 8, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 5 Protocol on Non-aggression and Mutual Defence in the Great Lakes Region,
    1. The Member States undertake to maintain peace and security in accordance with the Protocol on Non-aggression and Mutual Defence in the Great Lakes Region, and in particular:
    a) To renounce the threat or the use of force as policies means or instrument aimed at settling disagreements or disputes or to achieve national objectives in the Great Lakes Region;
    b) To abstain from sending or supporting armed opposition forces or armed groups or insurgents onto the territory of other Member States, or from tolerating the presence on their territories of armed groups or insurgents engaged in armed conflicts or involved in acts of violence or subversion against the Government of another State;
    c) To cooperate at all levels with a view to disarming and dismantling existing armed rebel groups and to promote the joint and participatory management of state and human security on their common borders.
    d) If any Member State fails to comply with the provisions of this Article, an extraordinary Summit shall be convened to consider appropriate action.
  • Withdrawal of foreign forces

    No specific mention.

  • Corruption

    No specific mention.

  • Crime/organised crime

    No specific mention.

  • Drugs

    No specific mention.

  • Terrorism
    Page 13, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 17, The Programme of Action for Peace and Security,
    The Member States undertake to ensure sustainable peace and security in the whole Region of the Great Lakes, in the framework of the Programme of Action for Peace and Security, which is aimed at
    ... c) Promoting inter-State cooperation on general security issues including combating the illicit proliferation of small arms and light weapons, preventing and combating organized transnational criminal activities and terrorism.

Transitional justice

  • Transitional justice general

    No specific mention.

  • Amnesty/pardon

    No specific mention.

  • Courts
    Transitional justice→Courts→National courts
    Page 9-10, Chapter II. The Protocols, Article 8, Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination,
    The Member States, in accordance with the Protocol on the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination, recognize that the crime of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity are crimes under international law and against the rights of peoples, and undertake in particular:
    a) To refrain from, prevent and punish, such crimes;
    ...
  • Mechanism

    No specific mention.

  • Prisoner release

    No specific mention.

  • Vetting

    No specific mention.

  • Victims

    No specific mention.

  • Missing persons

    No specific mention.

  • Reparations

    No specific mention.

  • Reconciliation

    No specific mention.


Implementation

  • UN signatory

    No specific mention.

  • Other international signatory

    No specific mention.

  • Referendum for agreement

    No specific mention.

  • International mission/force/similar

    No specific mention.

  • Enforcement mechanism
    Page 17, Chapter V. The Regional Follow-up Mechanism, Article 23, The Summit,
    1. The Summit shall be the Supreme organ of the Conference and it shall be chaired by a Head of State or Government of a Member State in rotation;
    2. The Summit shall be held once every two years. An extraordinary session of the Summit may be convened at the request of one Member State and upon the consent of the qualified majority of eight of the majority of the ratifying Member States present and voting;
    3. The Summit shall direct the implementation of this Pact, approve budgetary re- sources on the recommendation of the Inter-Ministerial Committee, allocate additional resources and assess progress made in the implementation of the Pact;
    [...]

    Page 18, Chapter V. The Regional Follow-up Mechanism, Article 24, The Regional Inter-Ministerial Committee,
    1. The Inter-Ministerial Committee shall be the Executive organ of the Conference. It shall meet in ordinary session twice a year. It may meet in extraordinary session on the request of one Member State with the consent of the absolute majority of Member States;
    The meetings of the Inter-Ministerial Committee shall be chaired by a Minister of a Member State in rotation, following the sequence of the ordinary periodical sessions of the Summit. Each meeting of the Inter-Ministerial Committee shall be preceded by a meeting of senior officials of the Member States;
    2. The Committee shall determine strategies for implementing this Pact and shall carry out regular monitoring of its implementation;
    3. It shall submit to the Summit a periodic report on the implementation of the Pact;
    [...]

    Page 21, Page 18, Chapter V. The Regional Follow-up Mechanism, Article 27, National Coordination Mechanisms and Collaborative Mechanisms,
    1. Each Member State shall establish a National Coordination Mechanism to facilitate the implementation of this Pact in that Member State;
    2. collaborative Mechanisms shall be established by the Inter-Ministerial Commit- tee to coordinate the implementation of the Pact in cooperation with the Member States, the regional economic communities and the relevant regional institutions.
  • Related cases

    No specific mention.

  • Source
    http://peacemaker.un.org/

Preamble

We, Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the International

Conference on the Great Lakes Region;

Mindful of the need to respect democracy and good governance, the fundamental principles enshrined in the UN Charter and the African Union Constitutive Act, notably territorial integrity, national sovereignty, non-interference and non-aggression, prohibition of any Member State from allowing the use of its territory as a base for aggression or subversion against another Member State;

Mindful of the need for an effective and sustained political will to jointly seek peaceful solutions to disputes and more especially to honor our commitments in a spirit of mutual trust;

Reaf rming our individual and collective determination to base the relations between our States on international legal instruments and universal fundamental principles, the priority political options and the guiding principles referred to in the Dar-es-Salaam Declaration, as well as to transform the Great Lakes Region, in the framework of our common destiny, into a space of durable peace and security, of political and social stability, and of economic growth and shared development by multi-sector cooperation and integration for the sole bene t of our peoples;

Determined to ensure the strict observance of the standards and principles of international humanitarian law, notably those relating to the protection and assistance of women, children, refugees and displaced persons, the violations of which have seriously affected the populations concerned;

Reaf rming our decision taken at Dar-es-Salaam to declare the Great Lakes Region a speci c zone of reconstruction and development and jointly determined to meet

the challenge of reconstruction and development with the full participation of all our peoples, particularly in partnership with the civil society organizations, young people, women, the private sector and religious organizations, as well as in close cooperation with the relevant regional organizations, the African Union, the United Nations, and the international community in general;

Determined to adopt and implement collectively the appropriate Programmes of Action, the Protocols and mechanisms to translate into reality the priority political options and the guiding principles of the Dar-es-Salaam Declaration;

Hereby Solemnly Agree:

Chapter I. General Provisions

Article 1 De nitions

1. For the purpose of this Pact, unless the context otherwise requires, the following mean:

a) Conference:

The International Conference on the Great Lakes Region;

b) Great Lakes Region:

The region composed of the whole of the territories of

the eleven core Member States of the Conference;

c) Dar-es-SalaamDeclaration:

TheDeclarationonPeace,Security,Democracy and Development in the Great Lakes region, adopted and signed at the rst Summit of the Conference in Dar-es-Salaam (United Republic of Tanzania) on 20 November 2004;

d) MemberStates:

TheelevencoreMemberStatesoftheInternationalConference on the Great Lakes Region, namely:

Republic of Angola, Republic of Burundi, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of Kenya, Republic of Rwanda, Republic of the Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, Republic of Uganda, and the Republic of Zambia;

e) National Coordination Mechanisms:

National Mechanisms responsible for facilitating the implementation of the Pact in the Member States;

f) Summit:

The organ composed of The Heads of State and Government of the Member States;

g) Regional Inter-Ministerial Committee:

The organ composed of the Ministers of the Member States in charge of the Conference;

h) Conference Secretariat:

The Secretariat of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region;

i) Pact:

The Pact on Security, Stability and Development for the Great Lakes Region;

j) Protocols:

The Protocols adopted or subsequently adopted under this Pact;

k) Programmes of Action:

The Programmes of Action adopted under this Pact;

l) Projects:

The Projects adopted or subsequently adopted under this Pact;

m) Follow-up Mechanism:

The Regional Follow-up Mechanism adopted under this Pact;

n) Fund:

The Special Reconstruction and Development Fund established under this Pact.

Article 2 Objectives

a) Provide a legal framework governing relations between the Member States to which this Pact applies as provided for in Article 4;

b) Implement the Dar-es-Salaam Declaration, the Protocols, Programmes of Action, the

The Objectives of this Pact are to:

Regional Follow-up Mechanism, and the Special Reconstruction and Development Fund as adopted under Article 3;

c) Create the conditions for security, stability, and sustainable development between the Member States.

Article 3 Content

The Dar-es-Salaam Declaration, the Protocols, the Programmes of Action, the Regional Follow-up Mechanism, and the Fund, shall constitute integral parts of this Pact;

All references to the Pact shall necessarily refer to all the integral parts of this Pact.

Article 4

Field of Application and Fundamental Principles

This Pact governs legal relations between the Member States who will have rati ed it, in the framework and within the limits of the priority areas selected in matters of peace and security, democracy and good governance, economic development and regional integration, as well as humanitarian, social and environmental issues.

The Member States undertake to base their relations on respect for the principles of national sovereignty, of territorial integrity, of non-interference in the internal af- fairs of other Member States, of non-aggression, of cooperation and of peaceful settlement of disputes.

Chapter II.

The Protocols

Article 5

Protocol on Non-aggression and Mutual Defence in the Great Lakes Region

1. The Member States undertake to maintain peace and security in accordance with the Protocol on Non-aggression and Mutual Defence in the Great Lakes Region, and in particular:

a) To renounce the threat or the use of force as policies means or instrument aimed at settling disagreements or disputes or to achieve national objectives in the Great Lakes Region;

b) Toabstainfromsendingorsupportingarmedoppositionforcesorarmedgroups or insurgents onto the territory of other Member States, or from tolerating the presence on their territories of armed groups or insurgents engaged in armed con icts or involved in acts of violence or subversion against the Government of another State;

c) To cooperate at all levels with a view to disarming and dismantling existing armed rebel groups and to promote the joint and participatory management of state and human security on their common borders.

d) If any Member State fails to comply with the provisions of this Article, an extraordinary Summit shall be convened to consider appropriate action.

Article 6

Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance

The Member States undertake to promote and observe democracy and good

governance in accordance with the Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance, and in particular:

a) To promote and observe democratic principles and standards;

b) To set up institutions to promote good governance, the rule of law and the respect for human rights through constitutional systems based on the separation of powers, political pluralism, the regular organisation of free, democratic and credible elections, the participatory, transparent and responsible management of business, institutions and public property.

Article 7

Protocol on Judicial Cooperation

The Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on Judicial Cooperation, to cooperate in matters of extradition, judicial investigation and prosecution.

Article 8

Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination

The Member States, in accordance with the Protocol on the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination, recognize that the crime of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity are crimes under international law and against the rights of peoples, and undertake in particular:

a) To refrain from, prevent and punish, such crimes;

b) To condemn and eliminate all forms of discrimination and discriminatory practices;

c) To ensure the strict observance of this undertaking by all national, regional and local public authorities and institutions;

d) To proscribe all propaganda and all organisations which are inspired by ideas or theories based on the superiority of a race or a group of people of a particular ethnic origin, or which try to justify or encourage any form of ethnic, religious, racial or gender based hatred or discrimination.

Article 9

Protocol Against the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources

The Member States agree, in accordance with the Protocol Against the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources, to put in place regional rules and mechanisms for combating the illegal exploitation of natural resources which constitute a violation of the States’ right of permanent sovereignty over their natural resources and which represent a serious source of insecurity, instability, tension and con icts, and in particular:

a) To ensure that any activity bearing on natural resources must scrupulously respect the permanent sovereignty of each State over its natural resources and comply with harmonised national legislation as well as the principles of transparency, responsibility, equity, and respect for the environment and human settlements;

b) To put to an end, through national and international legal means, to impunity in the illegal exploitation of natural resources by natural persons and legal entities;

c) To put in place a regional certi cation mechanism for the exploitation, monitoring and veri cation of natural resources within the Great Lakes Region.

Article 10

Protocol on the Speci c Reconstruction and Development Zone

The Member States agree, in accordance with the Protocol on the Speci c Reconstruction and Development Zone, to implement, an economic development and local regional integration process, pursuant to the decision contained in the Dar-es- Salaam Declaration to declare the Great Lakes Region as a Speci c Reconstruction and Development Zone, and for this purpose, to institute in particular:

a) Transborder development basins to promote local regional integration of the border populations;

b) A Special Reconstruction and Development Fund for the purpose of supporting the implementation of the Protocols and Programmes of Action selected in the priority areas of peace and security, democracy and good governance, economic development and regional integration, and humanitarian, social and environmental issues.

Article 11

Protocol on the Prevention and Suppression of Sexual Violence Against Women and Children

The Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on the Prevention and Suppression of Violence Against Women and Children, to combat sexual violence against women and children through preventing, criminalizing and punishing acts of sexual violence, both in times of peace and in times of war, in accordance with national laws and international criminal law.

Article 12

Protocol on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons

The Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons, to provide special protection and assistance to internally displaced persons and in particular to adopt and implement the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement as proposed by the United Nations Secretariat.

Article 13

Protocol on Property Rights of Returning Persons

The Member States undertake, in accordance with the Protocol on the Property Rights of Returning Persons, to provide legal protection for the property of internally displaced persons and refugees in their countries of origin, and in particular to:

a) Adopt legal principles whereby the Member States shall ensure that refugees and internally displaced persons, upon returning to their areas of origin, recover their property with the assistance of the local traditional and administrative authorities;

b) Create a legal framework for resolving disputes arising from the recovery of property previously occupied or owned by returning persons.

Article 14

Protocol on the Management of Information and Communication

The Member States agree, in accordance with the Protocol on the Management of Information and Communication, to establish a Regional Council for Information and Communication whose role, in particular, shall be:

a) To promote the free exchange of ideas;

b) To promote freedom of expression and the press;

c) To provide training and civic education through the media.

Article 15 Subsequent Protocols

The Member States agree that any subsequent Protocols that they may adopt after the entry into force of this Pact shall be an integral part of the Pact.

Any such Protocol shall enter into force in accordance with the provisions governing amendments and revision as set out in Article 34(5).

Chapter III.

The Programmes Of Action

Article 16 Objectives of the Programmes of Action

The Member States undertake to promote the joint strategies and policies outlined in the Dar-es-Salaam Declaration within the framework of the objectives of the sector Programmes of Action.

Article 17

The Programme of Action for Peace and Security

The Member States undertake to ensure sustainable peace and security in the whole Region of the Great Lakes, in the framework of the Programme of Action for Peace and Security, which is aimed at:

a) Promoting the joint management of the security of common borders;

b) Promoting, maintaining and enhancing cooperation in the elds of peace, con- ict prevention and the peaceful settlement of disputes;

c) Promoting inter-State cooperation on general security issues including combating the illicit proliferation of small arms and light weapons, preventing and combating organized transnational criminal activities and terrorism.

Article 18

The Programme of Action for Democracy and Good Governance

1. The Member States undertake to entrench values, principles and norms on democracy, good governance, and respect for human rights, in the framework of the Programme of Action for Democracy and Good Governance, which aims, in particular, to:

a) Establish regional mechanisms which work together to strengthen the rule of law in the region, to promote human rights, and to combat impunity;

b) Consolidate the democratization process by enhancing institutional capacity, by promoting political participation of all segments of society, and by developing and implementing communication and information strategies;

c) Harmonizeandcoordinatepoliciesontheprotectionandrationalmanagement of natural resources in the region.

Article 19

The Programme of Action for Economic Development and Regional Integration

1. The Member States undertake to jointly promote a prosperous, integrated economic space, to improve the standard of living of its populations, and to contribute to the development of the Region, by implementing the Programme of Action for Economic Development and Regional Integration with the aim of:

a) Promoting cooperation and economic integration by harmonizing and coordinating national and regional policies with relevant regional economic communities so as to improve stability and economic competitiveness, and to reduce poverty;

b) Developing common infrastructure in the areas of energy, transport and communications;

c) Promotinglocalregionalintegrationbystrengtheningmulti-sectoralcooperation and solidarity among the border populations of neighbouring Sates.

Article 20

Programme of Action on Humanitarian, Social and Environmental Issues

1. The Member States undertake to nd lasting solutions to guarantee protection and assistance to populations affected by political con icts in the Great Lakes Region, as well as by humanitarian, social, and environmental catastrophes, by implementing a Programme of Action on Humanitarian, Social and Environmental Issues, which is aimed at:

a) Promoting policies aimed at disaster prevention, protection, assistance, and the search for durable solutions for refugees and internally displaced persons, as well as their environment;

b) Promoting relevant policies to guarantee access to basic social services by the populations affected by con icts and effects of natural disasters.

Chapter IV.

The Special Fund For Reconstruction and Development

Article 21 Legal framework

ASpecialFundforthereconstructionanddevelopmentoftheGreatLakesRegion shall be created in accordance with the Protocol on the Speci c Reconstruction and Development Zone, but the legal status of such a Fund shall be de ned in a separate document;

The modality of the operation of the Fund shall be determined by a speci c legal framework to be agreed with the African Development Bank, which shall man- age the said Fund;

The nancing of the Fund shall be ensured by mandatory contributions from the Member States as well as by voluntary contributions from cooperating and de- velopment partners.

Chapter V. The Regional Follow-up Mechanism

Article 22 Establishment

1. The Member States agree to create a Regional Follow-up Mechanism which shall consist of the Summit of Heads of State and Government, the Regional Inter- Ministerial Committee, the Conference Secretariat, the National Coordination Mechanisms and the Collaborative Mechanisms and other speci c structures or forums if necessary, in order to ensure the implementation of this Pact;

2. The Regional Follow-up Mechanism shall be based upon the principles of best practice, complementarity, linkages, and collegial ownership by the Member States, in cooperation with the African Union and the United Nations and other partners.

Article 23 The Summit

TheSummitshallbetheSupremeorganoftheConferenceanditshallbechaired by a Head of State or Government of a Member State in rotation;

The Summit shall be held once every two years.

An extraordinary session of the Summit may be convened at the request of one Member State and upon the consent of the quali ed majority of eight of the majority of the ratifying Member States present and voting;

The Summit shall direct the implementation of this Pact, approve budgetary re- sources on the recommendation of the Inter-Ministerial Committee, allocate ad- ditional resources and assess progress made in the implementation of the Pact;

The Summit shall approve the appointment of the Executive Secretary of the Conference Secretariat on the recommendation of the Inter-Ministerial Committee, and decide on the location of the Conference Secretariat’s headquarters;

The Conference Chairperson, in the exercise of his or her functions between the ordinary sessions of the Summit, shall ensure the respect for and the implementation of the Pact by the Member States, and seek the support of the Region’s development partners to achieve the Conference’s objectives.

He or she shall be assisted in his activities by his predecessor and his future successor in the framework of a « Troika »;

6.

7.

A Member State that is unable or unwilling to honour its obligations under this Pact shall account for its failure before the Summit which will determine the consequences for such failure;

Decisions of the Summit shall be taken by consensus.

In the event of failure to reach a consensus, decisions shall be taken by a quali ed majority of eight of the eleven Member States present and voting in cases of non-procedural matters, and by an absolute majority of the Member States present and voting, in cases of procedural matters.

Article 24

The Regional Inter-Ministerial Committee

The Inter-Ministerial Committee shall be the Executive organ of the Conference.

It shall meet in ordinary session twice a year.

It may meet in extraordinary session on the request of one Member State with the consent of the absolute majority of Member States;

The meetings of the Inter-Ministerial Committee shall be chaired by a Minister of a Member State in rotation, following the sequence of the ordinary periodical sessions of the Summit.

Each meeting of the Inter-Ministerial Committee shall be preceded by a meeting of senior of cials of the Member States;

The Committee shall determine strategies for implementing this Pact and shall carry out regular monitoring of its implementation;

It shall submit to the Summit a periodic report on the implementation of the Pact;

It shall recommend to the Summit candidates for the position of the Executive Secretary of the Conference and approve nominations of senior staff for the Con- ference Secretariat on the recommendations of the Executive Secretary;

1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

It shall examine and submit to the Summit the draft budget as well as the reports and the work plans of the Conference Secretariat and af liated institutions;

It may, in the interval between the ordinary sessions of the Summit, make such budgetary, administrative and operational adjustments as the Summit may del- egate;

Decisions of the Inter-Ministerial Committee shall be taken by consensus.

In the event of failure to reach a consensus, decisions shall be taken by a quali ed majority of eight of the eleven Member States present and voting in cases of non- procedural matters, and by an absolute majority of the Member States present and voting, in cases of procedural matters.

Article 25 Ad-hoc Group of Experts

The Inter-Ministerial Committee may nominate an ad-hoc group of a maximum number of six independent experts composed of men and women in equal numbers and of high moral integrity, whose mission shall be to:

a) Prepare and submit to the Summit a special report on the speci c problems en- countered by the Member States in implementing the Pact;

b) Ful ll any other functions as determined by the Summit.

Article 26 Conference Secretariat

1. The Conference Secretariat shall be the technical arm and coordinating body of the Conference.

It shall be headed by an Executive Secretary whose mandate shall be for a period of four years not subject to renewal;

2. The Executive Secretary shall be responsible for:

a) Ensuring the implementation of the decisions of the Summit and the Inter- Ministerial Committee, and reporting on it;

b) Ensuring the promotion of the Pact and the execution of the Programmes of Action, Protocols and activities falling under his direct responsibility;

c) OrganisingthemeetingsoftheSummit,theInter-MinisterialCommitteeandof the other Conference structures and forums;

d) HarmonizingtheimplementationoftheConferenceactivitiesfallingunderthe responsibility of the relevant regional economic communities, as well as the decentralised and af liated institutions;

e) Drawing up programmes of activities and the budget of the Conference Secretariat, and ensuring their implementation after approval by the Inter- Ministerial Committee.

The Executive Secretary may seek technical assistance from the African Union, the United Nations, and cooperating partners and organisations;

The operating budget of the Conference Secretariat shall be proposed every two years by the Executive Secretary and approved by the Summit on the recommendation of the Inter-Ministerial Committee.

It shall be funded by mandatory annual contributions of the Member States and by resources mobilized from cooperation and development partners of the Great Lakes Region and by any other resources identi ed by the Conference;

The method of calculating the contributions of Member States and the currency in which they are paid shall be determined by the Inter-Ministerial Committee;

6. The recruitment of senior of cials of the Secretariat shall respect the principle of the balanced representation, and will be done on a rotating basis among citi- zens of the Member States.

Article 27

National Coordination Mechanisms and Collaborative Mechanisms

Each Member State shall establish a National Coordination Mechanism to facilitate the implementation of this Pact in that Member State;

Collaborative Mechanisms shall be established by the Inter-Ministerial Commit- tee to coordinate the implementation of the Pact in cooperation with the Member States, the regional economic communities and the relevant regional institutions.

Chapter VI.

Peaceful Settlement Of Disputes

Article 28

The duty to Settle Disputes Peacefully

The Member States undertake to settle their disputes peacefully;

Forthispurpose,theMemberStatesundertaketosettledisputesthroughnegotiation, good of ces, investigation, mediation, conciliation or any other political means within the framework of the Conference’s Regional Follow-up Mechanism;

The Member States undertake to have recourse to the means of settling disputes described in paragraph 2 above before having recourse to any other political, diplomatic or judicial mechanisms;

TheMemberStatesmayresorttothemeansofpeacefulsettlementprovidedforin the United Nations Charter and in the Constitutive Act of the African Union after recourse to the peaceful settlement of disputes in paragraphs 2 and 3 above.

Article 29

Disputes Concerning the Interpretation and Application of the Pact

The Member States agree to submit any dispute which may arise between them in relation to the interpretation or application of all or part of the Pact to the African Court of Justice if recourse to the means referred to in Article 28 (2,)(3)(4) turn out to be unsuccessful.

Chapter VII.

Final Provisions

Article 30 Signature and Rati cation

This Pact shall be open for signature and rati cation by all the Member States of the Conference;

Instruments of rati cation shall be deposited with the Conference Secretariat.

Article 31 Non-selectivity and Reservations

The Member States agree to apply all the provisions of this Pact according to the principle of non-selectivity;

No reservations may be entered to this Pact.

Article 32 Deposit and Registration

The United Nations Secretary General shall be the depositary of this Pact;

The Conference Secretariat shall make arrangements for depositing this Pact,

upon its entry into force, with the Secretary General of the United Nations and with the Chairperson of the Commission of the African Union.

Article 33 Entry into force

This Pact shall enter into force thirty days after the receipt by the Conference Sec- retariat of the eighth instrument of rati cation;

For any State which has rati ed the Pact after the date on which the eighth instru- ment of rati cation has been received by the depositary, this Pact shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of receipt by the Conference Secretariat of its instrument of rati cation.

Article 34 Amendments and Revision

Any Member State that has rati ed this Pact may propose amendments to, or revision, of this Pact;

A proposal for amendment or revision shall be submitted in writing to the Con- ference Secretariat that shall forthwith inform the other Member States of such a proposal;

The proposal for amendment or revision of the Pact shall be submitted to the Member States at least six months before the next session of the Summit at which it is proposed for adoption;

The decision to amend or revise the Pact shall be agreed by a quali ed majority of eight of the eleven Member States present and voting;

An Amendment or revision adopted in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Arti- cle shall be circulated by the Conference Secretary to all the Member States for their acceptance.

Instruments of acceptance of amendments or revision shall be deposited with Conference Secretariat;

The revision or amendment shall enter into force in respect of all the Member States 30 days after the receipt by the Conference Secretariat of the eighth instru- ment of acceptance;

Never the less, projects and budgets agreed within the framework of the Programmes of Action, Protocols, and the Regional Follow-up Mechanism may be amended without recourse to the amendment or revision procedure provided for above.

Article 35 Withdrawal

A Member State that has rati ed this Pact may withdraw from it at any time after ten years from the date on which this Pact entered into force in relation to such a Member State, by giving written noti cation of the decision to withdraw to the depositary;

Any such withdrawal shall take effect after one year from the date of receipt by the depositary of the noti cation of withdrawal.

In witness whereof, we, the Heads of State and Government of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, have solemnly signed this Pact in ve original versions, in Arabic, English, French, Portuguese and Kiswahili, all versions being equally authentic.

Done at Nairobi, Kenya, on .............../........................./...........................

1. H.E. JOSE EDUARDO DOS SANTOS 2.

President of the Republic of Angola

3. H.E. FRANCOIS BOZIZE 4.

President of the Central African Republic

5. H.E. JOSEPH KABILA 6.

President of the Democratic Republic of Congo

7. H.E. PAUL KAGAME 8.

President of the Republic of Rwanda

9. H.E. JAKAYA MRISHO KIKWETE 10.

President of the United Republic of Tanzania

11. H.E. LEVY MWANAWASA President of the Republic of Zambia

H.E. PIERRE NKURUNZIZA President of the Republic of Burundi

H.E. DENIS SASSOU-NGUESSO President of the Republic of Congo

H.E. MWAI KIBAKI

President of the Republic of Kenya

H.E. OMER HASSAN AHMED EL-BASHIR President of the Republic of the Sudan

H.E. YOWERI KAGUTA MUSEVENI President of the Republic of Uganda