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Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic (Khartoum Accord)

  • Country/entity

    Central African Republic
  • Region

    Africa (excl MENA)
  • Agreement name

    Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic (Khartoum Accord)
  • Date

    5 Feb 2019
  • Agreement status

    Multiparty signed/agreed
  • Interim arrangement

    Yes
  • Agreement/conflict level

    Intrastate/intrastate conflict ( Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
  • Stage

    Framework/substantive - comprehensive
  • Conflict nature

    Government
  • Peace process

    CAR: African Initiative (and related) Process
  • Parties

    Government of the Central African Republic

    His Excellency Professor Faustin Archange TOUADERA 
    President of the Central African Republic 
    Head of State

            Armed groups

    Mr. Maxime MOKOM
    Anti-Balaka – Mokom Branch    Mr. Dieudonné NDOMATE
    Anti-Balaka – Ngaïssona Branch
    Mr. Martin KOUMTAMADJI
    Alias Abdoulaye Miskine
    Front Démocratique du
    Peuple Centrafricain (FDPC)    Mr. Adam NOUREIDINE
    Front Populaire pour la Renaissance 
    de la Centrafrique (FPRC)
    Mr. Gilbert TOUMOU-DEYA
    Mouvement des Libérateurs
    Centrafricains pour la Justice (MLCJ)    Mr. Alkatim Ahamat MAHAMAT
    Mouvement Patriotique pour la 
    Centrafrique (MPC)
    Mr. Herbert Gotran DJONO-AHABA Rassemblement Patriotique pour
    le Renouveau de la Centrafrique (RPRC)    Mr. Bi-Sidi SOULEMANE alias Sidiki,
    Retour, Réclamation et Réhabilitation
    (3R)
    Ms. Esther Audrienne GUETEL-MOÏBA
    Révolution et Justice-Belanga Branch
    (RJ-Belanga)    Mr. Armel MINGATOLOUM-SAYO
    Révolution et Justice-Sayo Branch
    (RJ-Sayo Branch)
    Mr. Hisseine AKACHA
    Séléka Rénovée    Mr. Philippe WAGRAMALE
    Union des Forces Républicaines
    (UFR)
    Mr. Dieu Bénit Christian GBEYA-KIKOBET
    Union des Forces Républicaines-
    Fondamentales (UFR-F)    Mr. Ali Darassa MAHAMAT
    Union pour la Paix en
    Centrafrique (UPC)
  • Third parties

    II.    The Guarantors African Union    Economic Community of Central African States His Excellency Mr. Moussa Faki MAHAMAT Chair of the Commission    Ambassador Adolphe NAHAYO Representative of the Secretary-General         III.    The Facilitators Mr. Jean-Pierre LACROIX (United Nations)    Republic of Angola Republic of Cameroon    Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo    Gabonese Republic Republic of the Sudan    Republic of Chad Republic of Equatorial Guinea
  • Description

    This comprehensive agreements details commitments by both the government and armed groups with a view to ending the conflict. It is supported and signed by the conflict parties and international actors and provides detailed implementation and monitoring provisions.


  • Main category

    Page 3, Preamble
    Recognizing that the majority of the population of the Central African Republic is made up of children and women who have been deeply affected by the armed conflict, and that the full protection of their rights and the cessation of abuses and hostilities are objectives common to all Parties;

    Page 4, Section I, Article I
    (g) Rejection of violence against women and children;

    Page 4, Section I, Article I
    (c) Recognition of cultural and religious diversity and appreciate for the contributions of all components of the society of the Central African Republic by promoting the inclusion, particularly of minorities, women and youth, in the management of the State and in the task of national reconstruction;

    Page 5, Section II, Article 4
    (d) To ensure that all citizens of the Central African Republic, including the members of the armed groups adhering to this Agreement seeking to establish political parties or movements, may do so without restriction, in accordance with the laws in force in the country; and that the institutions of the Republic at all levels of government guarantee that the rich diversity of the Central African Republic is represented, devoting special attention to minorities and less represented groups, such as women and youth.

    Page 7, Section III, Article 5
    (c) To refrain from engaging in any act of destruction or illegal occupation of public buildings and sites, such as hospitals, schools and places of worship, and sites for internally displaced persons, as well as all acts of pillage or violations committed against civilians, including sexual and gender-based violence, in particular against women and girls.

    Page 14, Annex 1
    2. The Parties agree that this immediate, complete, and irrevocable cessation of hostilities commits them to scrupulously refrain from:
    (d) Any act of violence against women and girls, or of sexual or gender-based violence.

    Page 15, Annex 1
    Prefectural Implementation Committee
    A Prefectural Implementation Committee shall be established within seven (7) days of signature of the Agreement in order to ensure compliance, facilitate the sharing of information and create a peaceful environment throughout the prefecture. The Committee shall be chaired ipso jure by the Prefect and shall be composed of a representative of the Armed Forces of the Central African Republic, a representative of the internal security forces, a political leader from every signatory armed group with an active military presence in the prefecture, two representatives of every religious community (appointed by consensus by their peers or, failing that, by the Prefect) and two representatives of civil society organizations representing youth and women (appointed by consensus by the communities or, failing that, by the Prefect).

Women, girls and gender

  • Participation
    Participation→Effective participation
    Page 5, Section II, Article 4
    (d) To ensure that all citizens of the Central African Republic, including the members of the armed groups adhering to this Agreement seeking to establish political parties or movements, may do so without restriction, in accordance with the laws in force in the country; and that the institutions of the Republic at all levels of government guarantee that the rich diversity of the Central African Republic is represented, devoting special attention to minorities and less represented groups, such as women and youth.
  • Equality

    No specific mention.

  • Particular groups of women

    No specific mention.

  • International law

    No specific mention.

  • New institutions

    No specific mention.

  • Violence against women
    Violence against women→Sexual violence
    Page 7, Section III, Article 5
    (c) To refrain from engaging in any act of destruction or illegal occupation of public buildings and sites, such as hospitals, schools and places of worship, and sites for internally displaced persons, as well as all acts of pillage or violations committed against civilians, including sexual and gender-based violence, in particular against women and girls.

    Page 14, Annex 1
    2. The Parties agree that this immediate, complete, and irrevocable cessation of hostilities commits them to scrupulously refrain from:
    (d) Any act of violence against women and girls, or of sexual or gender-based violence.
    Violence against women→Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
    Page 3, Preamble
    Recognizing that the majority of the population of the Central African Republic is made up of children and women who have been deeply affected by the armed conflict, and that the full protection of their rights and the cessation of abuses and hostilities are objectives common to all Parties;

    Page 4, Section I, Article I
    (g) Rejection of violence against women and children;

    Page 7, Section III, Article 5
    (c) To refrain from engaging in any act of destruction or illegal occupation of public buildings and sites, such as hospitals, schools and places of worship, and sites for internally displaced persons, as well as all acts of pillage or violations committed against civilians, including sexual and gender-based violence, in particular against women and girls.

    Page 14, Annex 1
    2. The Parties agree that this immediate, complete, and irrevocable cessation of hostilities commits them to scrupulously refrain from:
    (d) Any act of violence against women and girls, or of sexual or gender-based violence.
  • Transitional justice

    No specific mention.

  • Institutional reform

    No specific mention.

  • Development
    Development→Rehabilitation and reconstruction
    Page 4, Section I, Article I
    (c) Recognition of cultural and religious diversity and appreciate for the contributions of all components of the society of the Central African Republic by promoting the inclusion, particularly of minorities, women and youth, in the management of the State and in the task of national reconstruction;
  • Implementation
    Implementation→Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
    Page 15, Annex 1
    Prefectural Implementation Committee
    A Prefectural Implementation Committee shall be established within seven (7) days of signature of the Agreement in order to ensure compliance, facilitate the sharing of information and create a peaceful environment throughout the prefecture. The Committee shall be chaired ipso jure by the Prefect and shall be composed of a representative of the Armed Forces of the Central African Republic, a representative of the internal security forces, a political leader from every signatory armed group with an active military presence in the prefecture, two representatives of every religious community (appointed by consensus by their peers or, failing that, by the Prefect) and two representatives of civil society organizations representing youth and women (appointed by consensus by the communities or, failing that, by the Prefect).
  • Other

    No specific mention.


Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic

February 2019

Preamble

We, the Government of the Central African Republic on the one part, and armed groups on the other part, hereinafter referred to as “the Parties”;

Gathered in Khartoum, Republic of the Sudan, from 24 January to 5 February 2019, within the framework of the dialogue process defined in the road map of the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic, signed in Libreville, Gabon, on 17 July 2017, the main objective of which is to promote dialogue between the Government and armed groups, with a view to reaching a comprehensive consensual agreement to put a definitive end to the crisis;

Expressing our profound appreciation for the efforts made by the Panel of Facilitators of the African Initiative in Bouar from 28 to 30 August 2018, which resulted in the consolidation of the demands of the armed groups and the facilitation of a direct dialogue;

and, acknowledging the unprecedented investment of the international community, including the political commitment of the African Union and the United Nations, and the multifaceted support of the partners of the Central African Republic which mobilized in Brussels to support the recovery of the country through implementation of the National Plan for Recovery and Peacebuilding in the Central African Republic and the Mutual Engagement Framework, signed in Brussels on 17 November 2016;

Having conducted a thorough analysis of the situation in the Central African Republic in general and the nature of the crisis in the country in particular;

Determined to eliminate definitively the deep-rooted sources of the current crisis and promote genuine national reconciliation based on a social contract among the sons and daughters of the Central African Republic;

Reiterating our commitment to the relevant African and international instruments and the Constitution of the Central African Republic of 30 March 2016, the recommendations of the National Forum of Bangui, held from 4 to 11 May 2015, the positive contributions made by the dialogue held in Khartoum, the relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions on the situation in the Central African Republic, as well as the decisions of the African Union, the Economic Community of Central African States and the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region;

Recognizing that the people of the Central African Republic are suffering greatly and that all must act to build the common good, transcending legitimate political differences, and that all sons and daughters of the Central African Republic must display great patriotism in order to overcome their differences and put an end to this suffering;

Recognizing that this latest crisis has inflicted untold suffering, caused the deaths of many, resulted in thousands of internally displaced persons and refugees, with humanitarian consequences and disastrous economic losses, eroded the social fabric, encouraged separatism, profoundly destabilized the Central African Republic and threatened subregional cohesion and stability;

Recognizing that the impunity that reigns has fuelled the infernal cycle of violence, weakened the judiciary, led to large-scale violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, and fomented the people’s mistrust of the State;

Recognizing that the majority of the population of the Central African Republic is made up of children and women who have been deeply affected by the armed conflict, and that the full protection of their rights and the cessation of abuses and hostilities are objectives common to all Parties;

and, convinced of the fundamental role of women of the Central African Republic in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in building sustainable peace, and emphasizing their important contribution to the efforts to find a definitive solution to end the crisis in the Central African Republic;

Recognizing that this crisis has exacerbated the structural weaknesses of the State, which has suffered from poor governance for decades, depriving people in all prefectures of the Central African Republic of equitable management and redistribution of the national wealth;

Convinced that there can be no peace in the Central African Republic without a common shared vision of mutual respect that includes all communities comprising the nation and incorporates forgiveness, national reconciliation and unity of purpose with neighbouring States and the subregion as a whole;

Fully aware that the political manipulation of ethnic and religious identities poses serious threats to social cohesion and national unity, and that the current status quo is unsustainable and threatens the very existence of the Central African Republic, which has been damaged to its core;

Convinced of the urgent need to promote inclusiveness in public policies and national programmes in order to prevent and combat marginalization and work towards building a more just society as the foundation of the new social contract of the Central African Republic;

Convinced of the need to promptly restore security and promote sustainable peace and stability in the Central African Republic, and to undertake urgently a profound national reconciliation, as set out in the Republican Pact for Peace, National Reconciliation and Reconstruction in the Central African Republic and the recommendations of the National Forum of Bangui;

Acknowledging the firm will expressed by the President of the Central African Republic, His Excellency Professor Faustin Archange Touadera, who, upon his election requested his peers to find a lasting solution to end the crisis in the country;

Recognizing that, following that call, African and international solidarity materialized once again through a mobilization which, following the African Union summit of 30 and 31 January 2017, led to the adoption of the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic under the auspices of the African Union, the Economic Community of Central African States and the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, with the support of Angola, Cameroon, Chad, the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon and the Sudan, as well as the United Nations pursuant to Security Council resolution 2448 (2018);

Bearing in mind earlier agreements, as well as the difficulties encountered in implementing and monitoring them;

Have agreed to the following:

I. Principles for a lasting settlement of the conflict

Article 1:

The Parties reiterate their commitments to the following principles:

(a) Respect for the national unity, territorial integrity and sovereignty of the Central African Republic, as well as its republican and secular character;

(b) Promotion of inclusion, affirmative action and temporary special measures in order to address the inequalities affecting communities and regions that have suffered harm in the past, and ensure their full participation in the political, economic and social life of the nation;

(c) Recognition of cultural and religious diversity and appreciation for the contributions of all components of the society of the Central African Republic by promoting the inclusion, particularly of minorities, women and youth, in the management of the State and in the task of national reconstruction;

(d) Assumption by the people of the effective management of their own affairs through an inclusive governance system that takes into account their aspirations and specific needs;

(e) Promotion of the balanced and equitable development of all regions of the Central African Republic, taking into account the potential of each region;

(f) Rejection of violence as a form of political expression and the use of dialogue and consultation to resolve differences;

(g) Rejection of violence against women and children;

(h) Respect for human rights, human dignity and fundamental and religious freedoms;

(i) Combating corruption and impunity.

Article 2:

The Parties undertake to implement fully and in good faith the provisions of the present Agreement and recognize their primary responsibility in that regard.

Article 3:

State institutions of the Central African Republic shall take the actions required to adopt the regulatory, legislative and even constitutional measures necessary for the implementation of the provisions of the present Agreement, in close consultation with the Parties and with the support of the Monitoring Mechanism provided for in the present Agreement.

II. Government commitments

Article 4:

The Government undertakes:

(a) In consultation with the National Assembly and the Monitoring Mechanism provided for in this Agreement, to take appropriate steps aimed at eradicating the root causes of the political and security crisis affecting the Central African Republic, and strengthen good governance, inclusiveness and affirmative action at all levels of government.

(b) To promptly adopt a new act on decentralization (laws on territorial units and administrative districts) and implement it through the effective transfer of the skills and resources required at the prefectural and local levels.

The distribution of tasks and responsibilities between the State and territorial units should take into account the needs of citizens and communities at the grass-roots level.

(c) To create, with the support of partners, appropriate mechanisms for the recruitment of civil servants from all sectors of the nation, in line with the principles of equity and representation.

To that end, the Government shall establish training programmes open to all men and women of the Central African Republic, to be developed collectively by the institutions of the Republic and the nation’s major stakeholders.

(d) To ensure that all citizens of the Central African Republic, including the members of the armed groups adhering to this Agreement seeking to establish political parties or movements, may do so without restriction, in accordance with the laws in force in the country;

and that the institutions of the Republic at all levels of government guarantee that the rich diversity of the Central African Republic is represented, devoting special attention to minorities and less represented groups, such as women and youth.

(e) To request from the National Assembly the revision of ordinance No.

05.007 of 2 June 2005, on political parties and the status of the opposition in the Central African Republic, so that political parties and groups become actors more engaged in the promotion of republican values, such as the promotion of peace, tolerance, democracy and respect for diversity and citizenship of the Central African Republic.

(f) To request from the National Assembly the adoption of an act on the status of former Heads of State in order that they may enjoy a decent life within society.

(g) To continue security sector reform and guarantee the republican and professional nature of the army and internal security forces;

and, in this regard, to ensure that future recruitment into the national army and internal security forces is conducted on an equitable, inclusive and transparent basis, guaranteeing that all social sectors of the country are represented, and in line with the implementation of the National Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation Programme.

(h) To facilitate the management and participation of the armed groups within all structures in charge of the disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation process, including the Strategic Committee and the Advisory and Monitoring Committee for National Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation/Security Sector Reform/National Reconciliation throughout the entire period of implementation of the National Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation Programme.

(i) To establish a joint Government–armed groups commission responsible for analysing, case by case, the reintegration dossiers of leaders and members of armed groups who were formerly civil servants or members of the military of the Central African Republic.

Such a review shall be done within the framework set out in the National Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation Programme and in consultation with international partners.

(j) To establish a programme to support income-generating activities in order to support the socioeconomic reintegration of former members of the armed groups and the recovery of communities at the grass-roots level.

(k) To create the conditions necessary for the voluntary return, reintegration and social reinsertion of all refugees and internally displaced persons with dignity, including through the adoption of legislation on the protection of land and other assets belonging to these vulnerable populations, in close cooperation with all humanitarian actors and the countries of the region, and in accordance with the international instruments in force.

(1) To create the conditions required for the whole of the population of the Central African Republic to benefit equitably from the exploitation of the country’s natural resources and the revenues generated.

(m) In addition to efficiently mobilizing domestic resources, to mobilize international partners for the implementation of national reconstruction and development programmes, in the context of the National Plan for Recovery and Peacebuilding in the Central African Republic, focusing as a priority on socioeconomic infrastructure and social protection as tangible peace dividends for the most affected communities.

A programme on labour-intensive major construction works shall be launched with the support of partners.

The programme to build and rehabilitate priority infrastructure (roads, bridges, schools, health facilities, markets, etc.)

throughout the country shall be directed towards former members of the armed groups, youth and local communities, and shall be implemented by the legitimate authorities at the local and national levels.

(n) To establish regular and fair taxation in respect of the transfer of resources from the State to territorial units for the extraction and management by the Government and private licensed businesses of natural and mineral resources in order to enable the development of the prefectures, reduce disparities between them and strengthen their autonomy within a unitary State, in accordance with the principles that shall be set out in the new act on decentralization and the principles of national solidarity, good governance and the fair and equitable distribution of national wealth.

(o) To establish local-level recovery and development programmes in an equitable manner throughout the country with the technical and financial support of partners.

(p) To promote social justice and the access of all people to basic social services, and advance the consolidation of the judiciary in order to strengthen the rule of law throughout the country.

(q) To initiate, through dialogue and the local committees on peace and transitional justice, an extensive campaign on national reconciliation and social cohesion aimed at promoting coexistence and strengthening the social contract as the bedrock of the Central African Republic.

(r) To combat any incitement to hatred and protect all minorities through the effective implementation of the National Plan for the Prevention of Incitement to Hatred and Violence;

and, to improve the legal and regulatory framework in order to ensure that any provision that provides for any type of discriminatory practice is removed from the laws governing the functioning of the country’s institutions.

(s) To accelerate the process to establish the Commission on Truth, Justice, Reparation and Reconciliation through the timely launch of national consultations and the adoption of a law on that Commission;

to work with international partners and relevant associations for the establishment of a victim support and redress programme;

and to develop and implement an action plan on traditional reconciliation mechanisms, in close consultation with traditional chiefs.

(t) To take the measures required to re-establish the civil registry and combat separatism as well as any form of manipulation of ethnic, regional and religious differences that could threaten national unity and destabilize the country.

(u) Implement a comprehensive action plan, detailed in Annex 2, to support, in an effective and efficient manner, the above commitments, if necessary through the adoption of appropriate legislation by the National Assembly.

III. Commitments of the armed groups

Article 5:

For their part, the armed groups undertake:

(a) To respect the legitimacy of the country’s democratic institutions, the constitutional order, and the territorial integrity and unity of the State of the Central African Republic.

(b) To renounce the recourse to weapons and violence as a means of making any claim, whether political, social or economic, and thus put an immediate, complete and irrevocable end to all hostilities and forms of violence between them and against State officials, the defence and security forces, United Nations staff and all other humanitarian actors, as well as the abuses committed against civilian populations, herders and farmers throughout the country.

In this regard, they undertake to implement and comply strictly with the temporary security arrangements set out in the “Specific issues” section and in Annex 1.

(c) To refrain from engaging in any act of destruction or illegal occupation of public buildings and sites, such as hospitals, schools and places of worship, and sites for internally displaced persons, as well as all acts of pillage or violations committed against civilians, including sexual and gender-based violence, in particular against women and girls.

(d) By mutual agreement of the Parties and the partners, to proceed with the complete dissolution of armed groups throughout the country and, in this context, to continue to exercise full control over their respective forces and commit to ensuring their immediate respect for the security arrangements provided for in this Agreement.

In this respect, any person or armed unit that violates those security arrangements shall be punished in accordance with the laws and regulations in force.

(e) To not impede the provision of public services to the population of the Central African Republic, and to facilitate the restoration of State authority throughout the country.

(f) To immediately and irrevocably put an end to any obstruction to the redeployment of civil and military public authorities, including civil servants and defence and security forces, and refrain from interfering with or threatening them in any way.

(g) To participate fully in the disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation process and engage in good faith in the programme to reintegrate members of armed groups into the uniformed services or income-generating activities;

to submit the lists of members of armed groups eligible for the National Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation Programme within 60 days of signature of this Agreement;

and to start the demobilization and disarmament operations within the time frame determined by the Programme.

(h) To put an immediate end to all forms of recruitment into armed groups, including the recruitment of children and foreigners;

to make any claim through peaceful means, including, where appropriate, through the establishment of political organizations;

to halt the illicit exploitation of natural resources and illegal trafficking in arms and ammunition;

to not obstruct the free movement of goods and people;

and to not impede the delivery of humanitarian assistance by humanitarian agencies and organizations throughout the country.

(i) To promptly return any occupied property and all goods they have taken to their legitimate owners or, failing that, to the State, unconditionally and with no compensation for themselves;

and to respect the property of communities, including those in situations of displacement.

(j) To guarantee to national and international non-governmental organizations adherence to humanitarian principles, protection of their operating bases and staff, desistance from aggression against humanitarian convoys and the extortion of funds from humanitarian workers, and the unconditional and secure access of all vulnerable communities, wherever they may be and regardless of their ethnicity or religion, to the humanitarian assistance and activities required to preserve human life.

IV. Specific issues

Disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation

Article 6:

The Parties underscore the crucial importance of the National Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation Programme and its implementation strategy to the stabilization process in the Central African Republic and stress the need for a rigorous and transparent management of the Programme through regular public communication concerning its implementation.

The Parties agree as follows:

(a) Armed groups shall be involved in the Strategic Committee, the Technical Committee and in the coordination of disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation, security sector reform and national reconciliation.

(b) The Advisory and Monitoring Committee shall be funded through disarmament, demobilization, repatriation and reintegration partners and through the State budget of the Central African Republic;

and additional funding shall be mobilized to strengthen the functioning of the Advisory Committee.

(c) Former members of armed groups participating in the National Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation Programme who are willing to join the uniformed services of the State but do not fulfil the required conditions shall be immediately referred for socioeconomic reintegration.

Justice and national reconciliation

Article 7:

The Parties, while rejecting any idea of impunity and recognizing the principle of presumption of innocence, acknowledge the painful consequences and the wounds left by grave crimes on all citizens and communities in the Central African Republic.

Article 8:

They shall refrain from repeating those grave crimes and any views and actions that could lead to their resurgence.

Article 9:

They further agree to accelerate the establishment of the Commission on Truth, Justice, Reparation and Reconciliation with the aim of promoting truth, justice, reparation, national reconciliation and forgiveness.

Article 10:

The Commission on Truth, Justice, Reparation and Reconciliation shall begin its work within ninety (90) days of the signature of the present Agreement.

Article 11:

Upon signature of the present Agreement, and pending the establishment of the Commission on Truth, Justice, Reparation and Reconciliation, an inclusive commission, consisting of the Parties, shall be immediately established by decree to examine all aspects of the tragic events of the conflict in the Central African Republic and consider and propose any action that may be taken in the realm of justice.

The commission shall submit its report to the Commission on Truth, Justice, Reparation and Reconciliation upon the establishment of the latter.

The mandate of this commission shall then end.

Article 12:

The Parties agree to take appropriate measures, including the establishment of a trust fund, to guarantee the rehabilitation and reparation due to victims.

Article 13:

The President of the Republic, in order to sustain the momentum towards reconciliation, may exercise his discretionary power of pardon, in accordance with the law.

Seasonal pastoral migration

Article 14:

The Parties agree to establish a system of effective and equitable management of seasonal pastoral migration in order to make it a secure and peaceful activity, essential to the harmonious economic development of herders and farmers, based on a guiding national framework and local frameworks which shall be developed in consultation with the affected communities.

Article 15:

The Parties also agree to encourage the Government to reactivate joint bilateral commissions with the States of the region to deal with transnational concerns, including the good management of seasonal pastoral migration, in order to make it a secure and peaceful activity.

Transitional security arrangements

Article 16:

The Parties undertake, upon signature of the present Agreement, to establish joint security units for an initial transition period of twenty-four (24) months.

The joint security units shall be under the supervision of the Chief of Staff of the defence forces and may seek the technical support of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA).

The joint security units shall include members of the national security and defence forces and their majority shall comprise members of armed groups who have fully adhered to the principles of this Agreement and completed an appropriate training regime lasting two (2) months.

Article 17:

The units shall enter ipso jure into service sixty (60) days after the signing of this Agreement and shall contribute to the protection and security of the civilian population, strengthen public order, secure seasonal migration corridors and perform all tasks assigned by the Technical Security Committee, provided for in Annex 1 relating to the implementation of the cessation of hostilities and temporary security arrangements.

They shall carry out their missions with respect for republican principles, including impartiality and neutrality, and in accordance with the laws and regulations in force.

Democratic foundations

Article 18:

The Parties agree to strictly adhere to the Constitution and the laws and regulations in force in the Central African Republic.

Article 19:

The Parties agree to abstain from any attempt to access or retain power by force, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Constitution of the Central African Republic and the Constitutive Act of the African Union.

Article 20:

The Parties agree that the holding of free, fair, inclusive, transparent and credible elections is the only way to ensure alternating political power and facilitate the consolidation of democracy in the Central African Republic.

Accordingly, they undertake to support the organization of elections at the presidential, legislative, regional and municipal levels in a climate of peace.

Article 21:

The President of the Republic, the Head of State, commits to establishing an inclusive Government immediately after the signing of this Agreement.

V. Commitments of the region and the international community

Article 22:

The States and international organizations that constituted the Facilitation Panel of the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic are the Guarantors and Facilitators of the peace and reconciliation process in the Central African Republic.

As such, they have undertaken the commitments that follow.

Article 23:

To support the Parties in the effective implementation of this Agreement, including through the provision of political, security, technical and financial support.

Article 24:

To verify the effective implementation by all Parties of their respective and joint commitments undertaken under this Agreement.

Article 25:

To conduct advocacy among countries in the region and international partners with a view to mobilizing the political, security, financial and technical support necessary for the effective implementation of the Agreement.

Article 26:

To take all other necessary measures to encourage the various Parties to respect their respective and joint commitments under this Agreement and to contribute to the stabilization of the Central African Republic.

VI. Implementation and Monitoring Mechanism

Article 27:

The Parties recognize that the effective, comprehensive and lasting implementation of this Agreement depends on the strength and sincerity of their commitments, and their determination to act in good faith and without delay, in order to accelerate the process of peace and reconciliation in the Central African Republic.

In this regard, the Parties agree to the following:

Article 28:

To conduct advocacy among politicians, religious leaders, civil society, the media and traditional authorities, as well as neighbouring States, international partners meeting in the International Support Group on the Central African Republic, and regional and international organizations, to seek collective and unanimous support for the achievement of the objectives of this Agreement.

Article 29:

To establish an Implementation and Monitoring Mechanism to monitor and evaluate progress in the implementation of this Agreement.

The Mechanism shall consist of executive and advisory bodies, whose roles and functions are detailed below.

Article 30:

To establish an Executive Monitoring Committee, co-chaired by the Government and the African Union, and comprising the Parties to this Agreement, the Guarantors, the Facilitators and major stakeholders of the Central African Republic.

It shall meet at least once a month and shall be responsible for the following:

(a) Determining the strategic directions for the implementation of the Agreement;

(b) Approving a timetable and ensuring compliance with it;

(c) Guiding and monitoring the functioning of the Implementation Unit of the National Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programme, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Agreement of 10 May 2015 on the principles of disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation and of integration into the uniformed State forces of the Central African Republic;

(d) Evaluating the implementation of the commitments undertaken under the Agreement;

(e) Verifying the monitoring of the implementation of its guidance and decisions;

(f) Holding regular consultations with representatives of the signatory armed groups.

Article 31:

A National Implementation Committee, comprising various ministerial departments (interministerial), various institutions of the Republic (inter-agency) and armed groups shall meet, as needed, under the chairmanship of the person appointed for that purpose by the President of the Republic.

The National Implementation Committee, which may entrust interministerial and inter-agency subcommittees to support its missions, shall be competent to implement this Agreement at the national level.

Its tasks shall include:

(a) To propose a timetable for the implementation of the Agreement;

(b) To prepare the draft legislation required to implement the Agreement;

(c) To adopt the necessary programmatic and regulatory frameworks;

(d) To define and guide efforts to raise awareness of and disseminate the Agreement among the nation’s stakeholders, the public, armed groups and the media;

(e) To adopt, secure and schedule the budgets required;

(f) To conduct consultations with technical and financial partners;

(g) To coordinate the activities of the Prefectural Implementation Committees and support them in the performance of their local tasks.

Article 32:

Prefectural Implementation Committees shall be established at the prefecture level and shall have the composition, powers and procedures set out in Annex 1.

Article 33:

In accordance with the Agreement of 10 May 2015 on the principles of disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation and of integration into the uniformed State forces of the Central African Republic, the Implementation Unit of the National Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation Programme shall continue its work to implement the Programme in a transparent and inclusive manner, incorporating the commitments on disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation undertaken under the present Agreement.

IX. Settlement of disputes and possible sanctions

Article 34:

The Parties agree to refrain, upon signature of this Agreement, from any recourse to armed force for the settlement of any dispute that they may have.

In the event of disagreement between the Parties in the implementation of the provisions of the Agreement, the Parties undertake to refer the matter without delay to the Guarantors and Facilitators of the Agreement, at the initiative of the latter or of the most diligent Party, for the purposes of conciliation, or failing that, arbitration.

Article 35:

The Parties recognize that violation of the Agreement exposes those responsible to punitive measures prescribed by the Guarantors and Facilitators.

The Parties acknowledge that any violation is likely to expose the perpetrators to international sanctions, including within the framework of the relevant provisions of decisions of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union and the resolutions of the United Nations Security Council, and within the framework of their respective sanctions regimes.

X. Funding

Article 36:

The funding mechanism for the implementation of the Agreement shall be defined jointly by the Government of the Central African Republic and the partners of the Central African Republic, meeting within the framework of the International Support Group on the Central African Republic.

Article 37:

The Parties agree to request, through the Government, the Framework for Mutual Engagement for the diligent implementation of supporting measures following the acceleration of implementation of priority projects within the National Plan for Recovery and Peacebuilding in the Central African Republic, in order to foster healing and confidence in the peace and reconciliation process.

XI. Final provisions

Article 38:

The provisions of the present Agreement and its annexes may be modified only with the express consent of all signatory Parties to the Agreement and following consultation with the Monitoring Mechanism and the Guarantors.

Article 39:

Annexes 1 and 2 are an integral part of the Agreement and, in this regard, have the same legal force as the provisions contained in the body of the text, including the preamble.

Article 40:

This Agreement shall enter into force upon signature by both Parties.

Done at Bangui, 6 February 2019, at 3 p.m. (Central African Republic time)

I. The Parties

Government of the Central African Republic

His Excellency Professor Faustin Archange TOUADERA

President of the Central African Republic

Head of State

Armed groups

Mr. Maxime MOKOM

Anti-Balaka – Mokom Branch Mr. Dieudonné NDOMATE

Anti-Balaka – Ngaïssona Branch

Mr. Martin KOUMTAMADJI

Alias Abdoulaye Miskine

Front Démocratique du

Peuple Centrafricain (FDPC) Mr. Adam NOUREIDINE

Front Populaire pour la Renaissance

de la Centrafrique (FPRC)

Mr. Gilbert TOUMOU-DEYA

Mouvement des Libérateurs

Centrafricains pour la Justice (MLCJ) Mr. Alkatim Ahamat MAHAMAT

Mouvement Patriotique pour la

Centrafrique (MPC)

Mr. Herbert Gotran DJONO-AHABA Rassemblement Patriotique pour

le Renouveau de la Centrafrique (RPRC) Mr. Bi-Sidi SOULEMANE alias Sidiki,

Retour, Réclamation et Réhabilitation

(3R)

Ms. Esther Audrienne GUETEL-MOÏBA

Révolution et Justice-Belanga Branch

(RJ-Belanga) Mr. Armel MINGATOLOUM-SAYO

Révolution et Justice-Sayo Branch

(RJ-Sayo Branch)

Mr. Hisseine AKACHA

Séléka Rénovée Mr. Philippe WAGRAMALE

Union des Forces Républicaines

(UFR)

Mr. Dieu Bénit Christian GBEYA-KIKOBET

Union des Forces Républicaines-

Fondamentales (UFR-F) Mr. Ali Darassa MAHAMAT

Union pour la Paix en

Centrafrique (UPC)

II. The Guarantors

African Union Economic Community of

Central African States

His Excellency Mr. Moussa Faki MAHAMAT

Chair of the Commission Ambassador Adolphe NAHAYO

Representative of the Secretary-General

III. The Facilitators

Mr. Jean-Pierre LACROIX

(United Nations) Republic of Angola

Republic of Cameroon Democratic Republic of the Congo

Republic of the Congo Gabonese Republic

Republic of the Sudan Republic of Chad

Republic of Equatorial Guinea

Annex 1

Implementation of the cessation of hostilities and temporary security arrangements

1. In accordance with the provisions of the present Agreement, the armed groups commit themselves, upon signature of the Agreement, to the immediate, complete and irrevocable cessation of hostilities and any act of violence, including against the State authorities, as well as any abuses against civilian populations, herders and farmers, throughout the country.

In this regard, the Parties, especially the armed groups in respect of their forces, upon signature of the Agreement, commit to solemnly issue a public and unconditional order on the cessation of hostilities, and to promote the values of respect and the protection of human rights throughout the country, with a view to ending all hostile acts and any other form of violence, impasse and sabotage.

2. The Parties agree that this immediate, complete and irrevocable cessation of hostilities commits them to scrupulously refrain from:

(a) Any violation of international humanitarian law, including crimes perpetrated against civilians and against the staff and property of the United Nations, humanitarian organizations, schools, medical facilities and places of worship.

(b) Any act restricting the voluntary return of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes in dignity.

(c) Any act that would violate the rights of children, including the recruitment and use of children under 18 years of age in any direct or indirect capacity within an armed unit.

(d) Any act of violence against women and girls, or of sexual or gender-based violence.

(e) Any form of propaganda, hate speech and divisive discourse that makes reference to ethnic, regional, religious or sectarian identity or that incites violence.

3. In order to fully ensure the establishment of the most favourable conditions for the diligent implementation of the Agreement, the armed groups also commit themselves to strictly refrain from:

(a) Any military operation or attack and any attempt to occupy new positions on the ground;

(b) Any movement of military forces or equipment from one location to another without prior authorization from the Prefectural Implementation Committee with competence in the area in question;

(c) The mobilization, deployment or use of their military forces in a way that could spread fear and incite terror in the civilian population;

(d) The recruitment of new troops and acquisition of new military equipment;

(e) Participation in public meetings or any other political activity in military uniform or armed with weapons;

(f) Any act that impedes the freedom of movement of persons and goods, including the erection of illegal barriers and illegal tax collection;

(g) Any act disrupting or preventing the delivery of humanitarian or development assistance;

(h) Any act that obstructs the redeployment of civil servants, public officials or the defence and security forces, or the provision of basic social services;

(i) Any act that could paralyse the work of the United Nations, including attacks on its staff and facilities, confiscation of its property or interference with its patrols and convoys.

4. The Parties undertake to cooperate fully with the various organs of the Implementation and Monitoring Mechanism responsible for implementing and monitoring the cessation of hostilities and temporary security arrangements.

Oversight of this Agreement shall be conducted at the prefecture level by the Prefectural Monitoring Committee, with the assistance of the Technical Security Committee.

Prefectural Implementation Committee

A Prefectural Implementation Committee shall be established within seven (7) days of signature of the Agreement in order to ensure compliance, facilitate the sharing of information and create a peaceful environment throughout the prefecture.

The Committee shall be chaired ipso jure by the Prefect and shall be composed of a representative of the Armed Forces of the Central African Republic, a representative of the internal security forces, a political leader from every signatory armed group with an active military presence in the prefecture, two representatives of every religious community (appointed by consensus by their peers or, failing that, by the Prefect) and two representatives of civil society organizations representing youth and women (appointed by consensus by the communities or, failing that, by the Prefect).

If necessary, the Prefectural Implementation Committee shall seek technical support from MINUSCA.

5. The Prefectural Implementation Committee shall:

(a) Assess the status of implementation of the Agreement at the prefectural level, in particular the temporary security arrangements and the National Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation Programme;

(b) Receive reports from the Technical Security Committee and the defence and security forces, seek the views of MINUSCA and determine measures to respond to security incidents;

(c) Provide a cooperative forum for its members to discuss and address security issues;

(d) Take measures to enhance the Parties’ confidence in the implementation of the Agreement and trust among the Parties;

(e) Establish as needed technical security subcommittees in sub-prefectures to oversee the implementation of the Agreement, prevent armed violence and promote the free movement of persons and goods in the sub-prefectures;

(f) Arbitrate and rule on any disputes that may arise between the Parties;

(g) Serve as a mechanism for resolving disputes of a military or operational nature, and reconcile diverse points of view;

(h) Determine the duration of the technical security committees.

Technical Security Committee

6. The Technical Security Committee shall oversee the implementation of temporary security arrangements.

It shall operate under the authority of the Government and include a representative of the Armed Forces of the Central African Republic, a representative of the internal security forces and at least one representative of every signatory armed group with an active military presence in the prefecture.

It may, upon its request, receive technical support from MINUSCA.

7. The Technical Security Committee shall:

(a) Verify/monitor the withdrawal of troops and removal of illegal barriers from the areas defined in the temporary security arrangements set out in this Agreement;

(b) Receive communications from individuals or groups of people concerning violations of the Agreement;

(c) Make recommendations to the Prefectural Monitoring Committee, paired with appropriate action;

8. In addition to the responsibilities set out above, the Technical Security Committee shall:

(a) Issue invitations to all participating members, with an agenda containing the items to be discussed;

(b) Collect, by any means it deems appropriate, information considered relevant;

(c) Conduct inspections to verify the above-mentioned information;

(d) Visit all communities freely without exception;

(e) Receive freely and privately, any person, group of persons or members of institutions in respect of any cases of possible violations of the Agreement.

Sanctions

9. In accordance with its mandate, MINUSCA shall apply temporary emergency measures to detain all those who directly or indirectly engage in acts that violate the provisions of the Agreement or are likely to endanger the peace, stability or security of the Central African Republic.

Annex 2

Government commitments

No. Commitment Actor Implementation lead time

Policy

1. Establish a representative monitoring committee.

The representative monitoring committee will be established 30 days following signature and may begin its work immediately Government + African Union + armed groups + partners Days + 30

2. Campaign to publicize the Agreement.

This campaign (radio and television, field visits, meetings with political and social actors, etc.)

must continue to promote the Agreement among the nation’s stakeholders and armed groups.

The campaign must be undertaken in accordance with the nexus of Government-armed groups-partners of the Central African Republic to ensure that everyone is moving in the same direction, thereby facilitating buy-in by the population and strengthening the legitimacy of the Agreement.

The campaign will continue throughout the period of implementation of the Agreement.

Government + African Union + armed groups + partners Days + 0

3. Efforts leading to the adoption of the act on decentralization.

This act is an asset for the implementation of regional development actions.

It will also help to establish the first concrete actions for correcting disparities.

The Government must nevertheless monitor the financial equalization system in the context of solidarity among territorial units.

In addition, given the depth of the challenges, a middle solution of progressive decentralization could even be examined, starting with the largest areas.

Government + African Union + National Assembly Days + 60

4. Launch of a working group on:

– Inclusivity, citizenship, secularism and the protection of minorities.

One of the causes of conflict in the Central African Republic is the place of minorities, their protection and the secular nature of the State.

It is, in sum, a crisis of citizenship and it is important that work be undertaken to revisit these issues and highlight the actions that can be taken to improve the legal and regulatory framework to ensure that the laws governing the functioning of institutions in the Central African Republic do not contain any provisions that may appear to be discriminatory practices.

Launched the month following the signature of the Agreement, the group should submit its findings within 90 days.

Mediator of the Republic and National Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms Commission Days + 30

5. Working group:

– To review the Political Parties Act;

and

– On the status of former Heads of State.

Under the Agreement, the provisions allowing armed groups wishing to engage in politics to do so and the challenges related to reconciliation and the renewal of the social contract in the Central African Republic mean that political parties must now be actors that are more engaged than before in upholding the republican values that promote citizenship of the Central African Republic, democracy, the promotion and protection of human rights, and the values of peaceful coexistence, peace and tolerance, etc.

Hence the need to review the Political Parties Act to bring it into line with modern-day requirements.

In addition, the construction of a democratic system based on the alternation of power calls for former Heads of State to be offered a decent life in society.

It is also an opportunity to undertake work that can help to strengthen democratic culture.

The group should submit its findings within 45 days of its establishment.

Government + National Assembly + partners Days + 45

6. Encourage the High Authority for Good Governance to adopt the strategy on good governance.

The High Authority’s tasks make it a major actor in the peace process as an institution that can provide a new frame of reference for democratic consolidation.

It is therefore important that all stakeholders of the Central African Republic share the same basic values in terms of building a system of good governance whose ownership can improve the management of public affairs, contribute to the more equitable distribution of national resources and thus assist in the prevention and reduction of conflict in the Central African Republic.

High Authority for Good Governance + partners + Government Days + 30

Socioeconomic issues

1. Work on the establishment of an emergency programme for the rehabilitation of grass-roots communities by building socioeconomic infrastructure in each prefecture (markets, health centres, water points, schools, etc.).

Under the National Plan for Recovery and Peacebuilding in the Central African Republic, the Government may initiate an emergency programme to provide each capital of prefecture or sub-prefecture with a socioeconomic infrastructure package.

This programme has a symbolic value and seeks to strengthen the momentum towards normalization of security but also serves as a test of good faith by armed groups.

The technical teams indicated are to identify, in the context of the National Plan, urgent actions to be implemented by the Government in order to serve the people of all prefectures on an equitable basis.

Presentation of the programme within 60 days of the signing of the Agreement, with a mapping of infrastructure to be provided for each prefecture Government + African Union + National Plan for Recovery and Peacebuilding in the Central African Republic + Mutual Engagement Framework + partners Days+ 60

2. Launch of four forums for regional development:

Birao, Bangassou, Bouar and Mbaïki

– Identification of production chains and job creation.

One of the reasons outlined as a factor contributing to recruitment into armed groups is the lack of economic opportunities for job creation and income generation.

This action would serve to identify profitable production chains where improved organization can produce sources of wealth capable of offering different prospects for young people and populations.

Relevant sectors could include fruit and vegetables, meat and milk, gum arabic and shea nuts.

Government + African Union + partners (private, international, NGOs) Days + 0

3. Preparation of a national and subregional plan for the management of seasonal pastoral migration

Seasonal pastoral migration, which generates significant economic activity and employs a large segment of the population in some communities, also brings with it a high potential for local conflict that must be managed through local mechanisms.

It is also a very technical activity that requires increased community engagement.

It is essential to begin work, starting from the next migration campaign, so that lessons learned form the basis of the proposal for an operational plan that could govern the following campaign in 2020.

Government + African Union + partners +local communities + joint brigades Days + 45

Defence and security

1. Observance of representation criteria for recruitment into the defence and security forces, in accordance with the Constitution (defence and security forces) Government + African Union + armed groups + partners

2. Immediate implementation of the arrangements for free movement and the lifting of illegal barriers Government + African Union +armed groups + partners

3. Joint commission on:

– The harmonization of ranks;

– The integration and reintegration of leaders and members of armed groups in the civil service.

Government + African Union + armed groups + partners

4. Communication strategy on the transparency of the National Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation Programme Government + African Union + Implementation Unit of the National Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programme + Agreement Monitoring Committee

Justice, national reconciliation and humanitarian issues

1. Continuation and acceleration of the process of establishing the Commission on Truth, Justice, Reparation and Reconciliation Government

2. Identification of all victims of crises in the Central African Republic, damaged public and private property and destroyed religious buildings.

Equitable actions should be taken.

The Government, together with partners, must therefore work hard:

– To establish a database of the victims of crises in the Central African Republic;

– To receive ideas from victims’ associations about the first symbolic and collective reparation measures Government + African Union + civil society organizations + partners

3. Launch a working group on:

– The role of traditional reconciliation mechanisms;

– The revitalization of traditional chiefdoms in the Central African Republic.

Traditional mechanisms can be a powerful tool for community reconciliation at the grass-roots level.

And this would bring significant added value for the renewal of coexistence and for consolidation of the Agreement.

In many societies, such mechanisms are facilitated by traditional chiefs.

Traditional chiefdoms therefore have a part to play.

For example, work could be carried out and a workshop organized on this subject, eventually leading not only to an action plan for the integration of traditional reconciliation mechanisms but also a draft law on traditional chiefdoms in the Central African Republic.

Government + African Union + Partners (national, international, NGOs)

4. Launch of a campaign:

– For the promotion and protection of human rights;

– For the promotion of culture, peace and citizenship.

National Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms Commission Days + 0