The University of EdinburghPeace Agreements DatabasePeaceRep

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Peace Agreements Dataset (PA-X) (v7)

PA-X is a database containing 2003 peace agreements, found in more than 150 peace processes between 1990 and 2023, now with 44 new agreements.

Please note that PA-X now includes agreements from a wider variety of negotiation practices - including some local agreements that are not associated with conflicts in which there have been more than 25 battle-related deaths. These can be excluded by the Agreement/Conflict level [variable: ‘Agtyp’] with value Intrastate/local (other) [IntraLocal].

Available as:

Please cite the data as:

Bell, C., & Badanjak, S. (2019). Introducing PA-X: A new peace agreement database and dataset. Journal of Peace Research, 56(3), 452-466. Available at https://www.peaceagreements.org/

Bell, Christine, Sanja Badanjak, Juline Beaujouan Robert Forster, Tim Epple, Astrid Jamar, Kevin McNicholl, Sean Molloy, Kathryn Nash, Jan Pospisil, Robert Wilson, Laura Wise (2023). PA-X Codebook, Version 7. Peace and Conflict Resolution Evidence Platform (PeaceRep), University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.


PA-X Gender - Gender Provisions in Agreements (v4)

PA-X Gender contains all the peace agreements between 1990 and 2023 which have provisions on women, girls, gender or sexual violence. This dataset contains additional variables related to women and peace agreements. This release adds 14 new agreements from the 7th release of the main PA-X database.

Available as:

Please cite the data as:

Bell, Christine, Sanja Badanjak, Juline Beujouan, Robert Forster, Tim Epple, Astrid Jamar, Kevin McNicholl, Sean Molloy, Kathryn Nash, Jan Pospisil, Robert Wilson, Laura Wise (2020). PA-X: Women, Girls, and Gender (PA-X Gender), Version 4. Political Settlements Research Programme, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh. www.peaceagreements.org/wsearch

Bell, Christine, Sanja Badanjak, Juline Beujouan, Robert Forster, Tim Epple, Astrid Jamar, Kevin McNicholl, Sean Molloy, Kathryn Nash, Jan Pospisil, Robert Wilson, Laura Wise (2020). PA-X Codebook: Women, Girls, and Gender (PA-X Gender), Version 4. Political Settlements Research Programme, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh. www.peaceagreements.org/wsearch


PA-X Local - Local Peace Processes (v4)

PA-X Local contains all agreements included on the main PA-X database that deal in some way with local issues, involve local actors, and deal with forms of local/communal violent conflict. Agreements span the 1990 to 2023, with global coverage, forming a collection of 344 local agreements, 12 of which are new in this release of PA-X Local.

PA-X Local only includes agreements for which we could obtain a text, and is therefore neither exhaustive of all local negotiation practices, nor clearly representative of them, nor of the range of armed actors and groups involved in local agreement-making. While it is likely to therefore reflect some processes more than others, it forms a useful qualitative tool for beginning to understand local processes and is the only database that we know of to currently do this. See more on the PA-X Local data and definitions in the Local Agreements Glossary, or on the dataset concept note, available in English, Arabic or French.

Available as:

Please cite the data as:

Bell, Christine,  Sanja Badanjak, Laura Wise, Monalisa Adhikari, Juline Beaujouan, Margherita Distrotti, Tim Epple, Robert Forster, Robert Wilson, and Laura Wise (2023). PA-X Local Peace Agreements Database and Dataset, Version 4. www.peaceagreements.org/lsearch 

Bell, Christine, Sanja Badanjak, Laura Wise, Monalisa Adhikari, Juline Beaujouan, Margherita Distrotti, Tim Epple, Robert Forster, Robert Wilson, and Laura Wise (2023). PA-X Local Peace Agreement Database and Dataset, Codebook, Version 4. PeaceRep, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh. www.peaceagreements.org/lsearch

Bell, C., & Wise, L. (2022). The Spaces of Local Agreements: Towards a New Imaginary of the Peace Process, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 16:5, 563-583. https://doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2022.2156111


PA-X Corpus

The PA-X Corpus is available via the PA-X main search page, at www.pax.peaceagreements.org/search.

Available as:

Please cite the codebook as:

Bell, Christine, Sanja Badanjak, Robert Forster, Astrid Jamar, Sean Molloy, Kevin McNicholl, Kathryn Nash, Jan Pospisil, Laura Wise (2023). PA-X Corpus Codebook. Peace and Conflict Resolution Evidence Platform, University of Edinburgh,
Edinburgh. www.peaceagreements.org


CV-19 Ceasefire Database

The CV-19 Ceasefire Database is a database and repository of ceasefire declarations and agreements. It also includes information on updates or related events, such as the termination or extension of a ceasefire during this period. 

We make no strong claim that all were a direct consequence of the UN Secretary General’s call. We therefore quite simply view this as a set of ceasefires called ‘during the Covid-19 pandemic’.  Under this definition, all ceasefires agreed on during the period of the Covid-19 pandemic are captured in this database, regardless of whether they referenced the UN call. 

Available as:

Please cite the data as:

Wise, L., Badanjak, S., Bell, C., and Knäussel, F. (2021). Pandemic Pauses: Understanding Ceasefires in a Time of Covid-19 (PSRP Research Report). Edinburgh: Global Justice Academy, University of Edinburgh. 


VaxxPax: a dataset of vaccination ceasefires

The VaxxPax Vaccination Ceasefires Dataset is an original dataset of 74 vaccination ceasefires, covering all instances of such events reported in the media and by NGOs across the world from 1985 to 2018.  The data consist of cases where a cessation of hostilities was agreed during a conflict for the purpose of, in part or in full, conducting a vaccination campaign or similarly addressing a public health need. Each event in the dataset is thus accounting for a combination of a vaccination campaign and ceasefire agreed to support it.

The dataset includes cases where the cessation of hostilities was limited in terms of its duration as well as cases where it was limited in terms of its geographical scope. Our data do not include, however, cases where the health need to be addressed directly relates to the harms associated with conflict, nor those agreements relating to the broader range of activities associated with humanitarian protection or relief. Each case of ceasefire is recorded separately, such that, for example, ceasefires that took place on non-contiguous dates in connection with the same vaccination campaign are counted as distinct events. For each recorded vaccination campaign and ceasefire event, the dataset provides a best estimate of start and end dates of the ceasefire and related vaccination campaign, country in which they are implemented, conflict in which the ceasefire is agreed, illnesses for which vaccination treatment is being provided, target populations of the vaccination, and organisations involved in the vaccination campaign.

Available as:

Please cite the data as:

Russell, Ian; Wise, Laura; Badanjak, Sanja. (2021). VaxxPax: a dataset of vaccination ceasefires, 1985-2018 [dataset]. University of Edinburgh Law School. https://doi.org/10.7488/ds/3131.

Russell, Ian; Wise, Laura; Badanjak, Sanja. (2021). VaxxPax: a dataset of vaccination ceasefires, 1985-2018 [codebook]. University of Edinburgh Law School. https://doi.org/10.7488/ds/3131.


Other Resources


Archives

  • Codebook for Version 6. Version 6 data file in csv. Cite as: 
    • Bell, Christine, Sanja Badanjak, Juline Beaujouan, Robert Forster, Tim Epple, Astrid Jamar, Kevin McNicholl, Sean Molloy, Kathryn Nash, Jan Pospisil, Robert Wilson, Laura Wise (2022). PA-X Codebook, Version 6. Political Settlements Research Programme, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh. www.peaceagreements.org 
    • Bell, C. and Badanjak, S. (2019) ‘Introducing PA-X: A new peace agreement database and dataset’, Journal of Peace Research, 56 (3). 
  • Codebook for Version 5. Version 5 data file in csv. Cite as:
    • Bell, Christine, Sanja Badanjak, Juline Beaujouan, Robert Forster, Tim Epple, Astrid Jamar, Kevin McNicholl, Sean Molloy, Kathryn Nash, Jan Pospisil, Robert Wilson, Laura Wise (2021). PA-X Codebook, Version 5. Political Settlements Research Programme, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh. www.peaceagreements.org 
    • Bell, C. and Badanjak, S. (2019) ‘Introducing PA-X: A new peace agreement database and dataset’, Journal of Peace Research, 56 (3). 
  • Codebook for Version 4. Version 4 data file in csv. Cite as: 
    • Bell, Christine, Sanja Badanjak, Juline Beaujouan, Robert Forster, Tim Epple, Astrid Jamar, Kevin McNicholl, Sean Molloy, Kathryn Nash, Jan Pospisil, Robert Wilson, Laura Wise (2020). PA-X Codebook, Version 4. Political Settlements Research Programme, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh. www.peaceagreements.org 
    • Bell, C. and Badanjak, S. (2019) ‘Introducing PA-X: A new peace agreement database and dataset’, Journal of Peace Research, 56 (3). 
  • Codebook for Version 3. Version 3 data file in csv. Cite as: 
    • Bell, Christine, Sanja Badanjak, Juline Beaujouan Robert Forster, Tim Epple, Astrid Jamar, Kevin McNicholl, Sean Molloy, Kathryn Nash, Jan Pospisil, Robert Wilson, Laura Wise (2020). PA-X Codebook, Version 3. Political Settlements Research Programme, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh. www.peaceagreements.org 
    • Bell, C. and Badanjak, S. (2019) ‘Introducing PA-X: A new peace agreement database and dataset’, Journal of Peace Research, 56 (3). 
  • Codebook for Version 2. Version 2 data file in csv. Cite as: 
    • Bell, Christine, Sanja Badanjak, Robert Forster, Astrid Jamar, Kevin McNicholl, Sean Molloy, Kathryn Nash, Jan Pospisil, Laura Wise (2019). PA-X Codebook, Version 3. Political Settlements Research Programme, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh. www.peaceagreements.org 
    • Bell, C. and Badanjak, S. (2019) ‘Introducing PA-X: A new peace agreement database and dataset’, Journal of Peace Research, 56 (3). 
  • Codebook for Version 1. Version 1 data file in csv. Cite as: 
    • PA-X (2017). Peace Agreements Database and Access Tool, Version 1. Political Settlements Research Programme, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh. www.peaceagreements.org 
    • Bell, Christine, Sanja Badanjak, Robert Forster, Astrid Jamar, Jan Pospisil, Laura Wise (2017). PA-X Codebook, Version 1. Political Settlements Research Programme, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh. www.peaceagreements.org 
    • Bell, C. and Badanjak, S. (2019) ‘Introducing PA-X: A new peace agreement database and dataset’, Journal of Peace Research, 56 (3).